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Ludwig Cruewell, 1892-1958

Ludwig Cruewell, 1892-1958


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Ludwig Cruewell, 1892-1958

Ludwig Cruewell (1892-1958) war der deutsche General, der Rommel als Kommandeur des Afrikakorps nachfolgte, aber seine militärische Karriere endete, als er im Mai 1942 von den Briten gefangen genommen wurde. Cruewells Familie war im Verlagswesen tätig, aber er wählte die Armee als Karriere, Anwerbung als Offiziersanwärter bei den 9. Dragonern, stationiert in Metz. Bei Ausbruch des Ersten Weltkrieges war er Leutnant der Kavallerie, wurde 1916 zum Oberleutnant befördert und diente als Regimentsadjutant.

In der Zwischenkriegszeit diente Cruewell in der Reichswehr und wurde 1939 zum Oberst befördert. Er nahm an den Invasionen in Polen und Frankreich teil und wurde am 1. August 1940 zum Generalmajor befördert und erhielt das Kommando über die neu aufgestellte 11. Panzerdivision.

Diese Division war Teil des 14. Panzerkorps von General von Wietersheim in der 1. Panzergruppe von Kleists während der Invasion in Jugoslawien. Cruewells Division bildete die Speerspitze dieses Korps und war eine von drei Kolonnen, die am Morgen des 13. April 1941 in Belgrad einmarschierten. Cruewell wurde für diesen Erfolg das Ritterkreuz verliehen.

Während der Operation Barbarossa bildete Cruewells Division Teil der 1. Panzergruppe Kleists innerhalb der Heeresgruppe Süd und nahm an den Kämpfen in der Ukraine teil. Cruewell wurde für seine Aktionen zum Generalleutnant befördert und erhielt am 1. September 1941 als erster Divisionskommandeur die Oakleaves zum Ritterkreuz.

Auch Rommel wurde auf ihn aufmerksam. Der Desert Fox war vor kurzem vom Kommando des Afrikakorps zum Kommando der Panzergruppe Afrika befördert worden und brauchte einen neuen Kommandanten für seine ehemalige Einheit. Er forderte Cruewell auf und war sogar bereit, das Afrikakorps für zwei Monate ohne Kommandeur zu verlassen, während Cruewell sich von einem Krankenhausaufenthalt erholte.

Cruewell traf im Oktober 1941 in Afrika ein. Kompetent unterstützt von seinem Stabschef Fritz Bayerlein bestätigte er Rommels anfängliche hohe Meinung und wurde überraschend unabhängig. Er traf ein, kurz bevor General Auchinleck die Operation Crusader (November-Dezember 1941) startete, eine der erfolgreicheren alliierten Offensiven in der Westlichen Wüste. Rommel wurde aus Tobruk zurückgedrängt und landete in El Agheila.

Rommels zweite Offensive, die im Januar 1942 begann (kurz bevor die Panzergruppe Afrika zur Panzerarmee Afrika wurde), drängte die Briten nach Gazala zurück. Cruewell übernahm kurzzeitig das Kommando über die gesamte Armee, während Rommel im März krankgeschrieben war.

Am 28. Mai begann Rommel seinen Angriff auf die Gazala-Linie. Er führte seine gepanzerten Einheiten um das südliche Ende der alliierten Flanken herum und drohte, eingeschlossen zu werden. Am 29. Mai versuchte Cruewell, über die alliierten Linien zu fliegen, um Rommel bei Bir el Harmat zu erreichen, als sein Flugzeug abgeschossen wurde. Cruewell überlebte den Absturz, wurde aber von den Briten gefangen genommen und verbrachte den Rest des Krieges als Kriegsgefangener.


Crüwell wurde im August 1940 Kommandeur der 11. Panzerdivision und führte diese während der Invasion Jugoslawiens an. Danach erhielt er das Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes. Ludwig Crüwell_sentence_3

Dann nahm die Division an der Operation Barbarossa teil, wurde zum Generalleutnant befördert und erhielt das Eichenlaub zu seinem Ritterkreuz. Ludwig Crüwell_sentence_4

Crüwell wurde am 31. Juli 1941 Kommandeur des Afrikakorps unter General Erwin Rommel, der am selben Tag das Kommando über die Panzerarmee Afrika, bestehend aus einer Infanterie- und zwei Panzerdivisionen, übernahm. Ludwig Crüwell_sentence_5

Am 15. September übernahm er aus gesundheitlichen Gründen das eigentliche Kommando und wurde am 17. Dezember 1941 zum General der Panzertruppe befördert. Ludwig Crüwell_sentence_6

Am 29. Mai 1942 inspizierte Crüwell Luftoperationen in Libyen. Ludwig Crüwell_sentence_7

Sein Pilot verwechselte britische Truppen mit italienischen Soldaten und landete, wo Crüwell gefangen genommen wurde. Ludwig Crüwell_sentence_8

Crüwell wurde in Trent Park interniert, wo er am 22. März 1943 absichtlich einem anderen Kriegsgefangenen, General Wilhelm von Thoma, unterstellt wurde. Ludwig Crüwell_sentence_9

Während ihres Gesprächs gab Thoma Informationen über die V-2-Rakete preis, d. h. die Überraschung, dass London noch nicht in Trümmern lag, als deutsche Raketen auf dem von ihm besuchten Testgelände Kummersdorf getestet wurden. Ludwig Crüwell_sentence_10

Dies führte dazu, dass die Briten Peenemünde untersuchten und nach Bestätigung einen Bombenangriff auf die Anlagen in Peenemünde durchführten, der das Programm stark störte. Ludwig Crüwell_sentence_11

Nach dem Krieg ließ sich Crüwell in Essen nieder. Ludwig Crüwell_sentence_12

Er wurde Vorsitzender des Veteranenverbandes des Deutschen Afrikakorps und starb am 25. September 1958. Ludwig Crüwell_Satz_13


Cruewell, Ludwig (1892-1958) Officer, (General), DeutschlandCruewell wird von Adolf Hitler zum Generalleutnant befördert und mit der Ausschmückung von "Eichenlaub" zusätzlich zum "Ritterkreuz" von . ausgezeichnet das Eiserne Kreuz links Wilhelm Keitel. 01.09

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Inhalt

Crüwell trat 1911 als Kadett im 9. (1. Hannoveraner) Dragoner-Regiment in die deutsche Armee ein. 1912 wurde er zum Leutnant befördert und ging mit seinem Regiment im Ersten Weltkrieg an die Front. Neben seiner Tätigkeit als Kompaniechef und Regimentsadjutant im 450. Infanterieregiment wurde Crüwell auch in den Stab der 233. 1918, kurz vor Kriegsende, wurde er zum Adjutanten der 19. Landwehrbrigade ernannt. Nach Kriegsende bleibt er in der Reichswehr und wird in den nächsten Jahren ständig von einer Stabsstelle in die nächste versetzt. 1928 wird er, inzwischen Rittmeister, in das 12. Kavallerieregiment versetzt. In mehreren Stabspositionen eingesetzt, wurde Crüwell 1936 bei der Panzerabwehr eingesetzt, zum Oberst befördert und übernahm im selben Jahr das Kommando über das Panzerregiment 6.

Bei der drohenden Invasion Polens wurde er im Generalstab eingesetzt und war, nachdem er am 2. Dezember 1939 Generalmajor geworden war, während der Schlacht um Frankreich Quartiermeister der 16. Armee. Crüwell wurde im August 1940 Kommandeur der 11. Panzerdivision und führte diese in den Balkanfeldzug. Für seine herausragenden Verdienste während der Invasion in Jugoslawien, die aufgrund der Division Crüwells ein äußerst erfolgreicher Blitzkrieg war, erhielt er das Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes. Dann nahm die Division an der Operation Barbarossa teil. Anfang 1941 wurde die Division in der Nähe von Beritchev von 12 Divisionen umzingelt, und Crüwell schaffte es nur knapp, seine geschlagene Division herauszuholen. Dafür wurde er zum Generalleutnant befördert und erhielt das Eichenlaub zum Ritterkreuz.

Crüwell wurde am 31. Juli 1941 Kommandeur des Afrikakorps und verantwortete General Erwin Rommel, der am selben Tag das Kommando über die Panzerarmee Afrika, bestehend aus einer Infanterie- und zwei Panzerdivisionen, übernahm. Am 15. September übernahm er aus gesundheitlichen Gründen das eigentliche Kommando und wurde am 17. Dezember 1941 zum General der Panzertruppe befördert Afrikakorps musste die Cyrenaika räumen. Am 29. Mai 1942 inspizierte Crüwell Luftoperationen in Libyen. Sein Fieseler Fi 156 Pilot verwechselte britische Truppen mit italienischen Soldaten und landete. Obwohl der Pilot tödlich verwundet wurde, überlebte Crüwell und geriet in Gefangenschaft. [1] General Crüwell blieb ein Gefangener und wurde am 22. März 1943 absichtlich mit einem anderen Kriegsgefangenen, General Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma (im November 1942 als vorübergehender Befehlshaber des Afrikakorps gefangen genommen), der während des Treffens Informationen über die V-2-Rakete, dh Überraschung, dass London noch nicht in Trümmern lag, weil deutsche Raketen auf einem von ihm besuchten "Sondergelände bei Kummersdorf" getestet wurden. Dies führte dazu, dass die Briten Peenemünde untersuchten und nach Bestätigung einen Bombenangriff auf die Anlagen in Peenemünde durchführten [2]

Nach dem Krieg ließ sich Crüwell in Essen nieder. Er wurde Vorsitzender des Verband ehemaliger Angehöriger Deutsches Afrika Korps (Veteranenverband des Deutschen Afrikakorps) und starb am 25. September 1958.


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Montag, 27. Juli 2020

Ludwig Crüwell Farbfoto

Der folgende Kriegsauszug beschreibt, warum Crüwell das Ritterkreuz verliehen wurde:

“Generalmajor Crüwell durchbrach mit seiner Panzerdivision die jugoslawischen Grenzstellungen im Nisava-Tal. Er und seine Männer eroberten Nisch am 09.04.1941 und brachen mit der Einnahme von Belgrad am 13.04.1941 die Kampfkraft der jugoslawischen Armee und des Volkes. 40000 Gefangene, 30 Batterien, 24 Flugzeuge und viel anderes Material fielen in die Hände der 11. Panzer-Division.”

Im folgenden Presseauszug werden diese Aktionen wie folgt detailliert beschrieben…

“Als Kommandant einer Panzer-Division durchbrach Generalmajor Crüwell die jugoslawischen Grenzstellungen im Nisava-Tal und erreichte trotz der sehr schlechten Wetter- und Straßenverhältnisse innerhalb von fünf Tagen das vorgegebene Ziel Belgrad. Dabei zerschlugen er und seine Männer mindestens fünf feindliche Divisionen und eine Kavallerie-Division und lösten gleichzeitig den Zerfall weiterer bedeutender Elemente der jugoslawischen Armee aus. Der Widerstand des Feindes war damit so weit erschüttert, dass die Regierung gezwungen war, bereits am Tag nach der Eroberung Belgrads einen Waffenstillstand anzubieten.

Dieser Erfolg ist auf die mutigen persönlichen Aktionen von Generalmajor Crüwell zurückzuführen, der unter den führenden Elementen seiner Division agierte. Seine rücksichtslose Energie trug dazu bei, dass seine Soldaten alle Schwierigkeiten durch Wetter, Gelände und Erschöpfung meistern konnten.”

Eingereicht am 17. April 1941.
Vorläufige Urkunde und Auszeichnung am 19. Mai 1941 an die AOK 12.


  1. ^ "Der Fehler eines Piloten führt zur Gefangennahme" Chillicothe Daily Tribune, 2. Juni 1942, S.6
  2. ^ PBS-Show "Secrets of the Dead", Episode "Bugging Hitler's Soldiers", Transkript bei PBS
  3. ^ einB Thomas 1997, S. 106.
  4. ^ einB Scherzer 2007, S. 263.
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Marine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm und alliierten Streitkräften mit Deutschland nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchivs] (auf Deutsch). Jena, Deutschland: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN  978-3-938845-17-2 .
  • Thomas, Franz (1997). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1: A–K [Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1: A–K] (auf Deutsch). Osnabrück, Deutschland: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN  978-3-7648-2299-6 .

Die Schlacht von Uman fand Ende Juli/Anfang August 1941 während der Offensive der Heeresgruppe Süd der Wehrmacht auf dem Territorium der UdSSR statt. Dies führte zur Einkreisung (dem sogenannten “Uman-Kessel”) und dem anschließenden Tod der Truppen der 6. und 12. Armee der Südwestfront und einzelner Einheiten der Südfront der Roten Armee. Es war der Prozess der Belohnung der Wehrmachtssoldaten für einen erfolgreich absolvierten Kampfeinsatz, den der Fotograf auf diesen Fotos in Farbe festhalten konnte.

Lohnender Wehrmachtssoldat 1941. Foto in Farbe

Lohnender Wehrmachtssoldat 1941. Generalmajor Ludwig Crüwell. Foto in Farbe

Generalmajor Ludwig Crüwell. Ganz rechts der Kommandant des 15. Panzerregiments, Oberstleutnant Gustav-Adolph Riebel.

Lohnender Wehrmachtssoldat 1941. Generalmajor Ludwig Crüwell. Foto in Farbe

Lohnender Wehrmachtssoldat 1941. Generalmajor Ludwig Crüwell. Foto in Farbe

Lohnender Wehrmachtssoldat 1941. Foto in Farbe

Feldwebel mit dem Schild “Kongress der SA in Braunschweig 1931” Gespräche mit dem Sonderführer.

Lohnender Wehrmachtssoldat 1941. Foto in Farbe

Lohnender Wehrmachtssoldat 1941. Foto in Farbe

Feldwebel mit dem Schild “Kongress der SA in Braunschweig 1931” und einem nagelneuen Eisernen Kreuz 2. Klasse

Lohnender Wehrmachtssoldat 1941. Foto in Farbe

Lohnender Wehrmachtssoldat 1941. Foto in Farbe

Fotos stammen aus einer freien Quelle. Der Besitzer und Autor des Fotos ist uns nicht bekannt, wenn Sie es sind, dann lassen Sie es uns wissen.


Ludwig Cruewell, 1892-1958 - Geschichte

제2차 세계대전 독일 육군 11 기갑사단 스토리

11 기갑사단(die 11. Panzerdivision) 유령(Ghost) 엠블럼

11 기갑사단(die 11. Panzerdivision) 유령(Ghost)은 1940년 제 . 1941년 유고슬라비아 침공(die Invasion Jugoslawiens) 최초로 실전에 , 1944년 초반까지 소련군과 . 대전 마지막 해에는 프랑스 남부와 독일에서 전투에 종사했다. 사단의 엠블럼(Emblem)은 유령(Geist)이다.

1941년 4월 유고슬라비아(Jugoslawien) 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 15 기갑연대(das Panzerregiment 15) 4호 전차(Panzer IV) E형(Ausf. E) 11호.

11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 15 기갑연대(das Panzerregiment 15) 4호 전차(Panzer IV) E형 11호.

1940년 11 기갑사단(die 11. Panzerdivision) 엠블럼(Emblem)

11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision)은 1940년 8월 1일 5 기갑사단(5. Panzerdivision)에서 분리된 15 기갑연대(Panzer Regiment 15)와 육군 11 여단(11. Schützen-Brigade), 231 보병사단( 231. US-Infanteriedivision), 311 보병사단(311. US-Infanteriedivision) 209 보병사단(209. US-Infanteriedivision)에서 차출한 병력을 합해 . 병력은 실레지아(Schlesien) 출신이었다.

1940년 8월 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 15 기갑연대(das 15. Panzerregiment) 1호 지휘 전차(Panzer I) 06호.

11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 15 기갑연대(das 15. Panzerregiment) 3호 전차(Panzer III) F형(Ausf F) 1호.

11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 15 기갑연대(das 15. Panzerregiment) 4호 전차(Panzer IV) E형.

1941년 밀밭(ein Weizenfeld)에 정차한 쥔다프(Zündapp) K600 사이드카(Beiwagen)에서 잠든 피곤한(eine erschöpfte) 11 '유령' 기갑사단(die 11. Panzer-„Ghost“-Division) 병사. 2호 전차(PzKpfw II)들이 .

11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision)은 1941년 4월 유고슬라비아 침공(die Invasion Jugoslawiens)에서 최초로 활동했다. 불가리아(Bulgarien)를 통과해 벨그라데(Belgrad)에 도착한 사단은 도시를 점령(einfangen) 했다.

1941년 4월 유고슬라비아(Jugoslawien) 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 15 기갑연대(das 15. Panzerregiment) 3호 전차(Pz III) F형(Ausf F) 35호.

1941년 4월 유고슬라비아(Jugoslawien) 벨그라데(Belgrad) 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) Sd.Kfz. 250 데마그(Demag) 경장갑병력수송차(ein leicht gepanzerter Halbkettenfahrzeug).

1941년 6월 22일 바르바로사 작전(Unternehmen Barbarossa)에 참가한 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 3호 전차(PzKpfw III) F형(Ausf. F)과 G형(Ausf. G) 대열

11 기갑사단은 다시 동부전선(Ostfront)으로 이동해 남부 집단군(Heeresgruppe Süd)에 소속됐다. 키예프 전투(die Schlacht von Kiew)에 참가한 뒤 이어서 모스크바 전투(die Schlacht von Moskau)에 참여했다. 모스크바로 향하던 11 기갑사단(die 11. Panzerdivision)은 소련군 판필로프(Panfilov)의 28 근위군(die 28. Garde)을 향해 전설적인 반격을 가했다.

1941년 6월 23일 동부전선(Ostfront) 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) Sd.Kfz.151/1-II 그라운드 슈투카(Stuka zu Fuß).

1941년 9월 우크라이나(Ukraine) 키예프(Kiew) 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 4호 전차(Panzer IV) C형(Ausf. C).

1941년 6월 11 (11. Panzerdivision) 15 기갑연대(15. Panzerregiment) 3 중대(3. Kompanie) 4호 전차(Pz.Kpfw. IV) Sd.Kfz. 161 E형(Ausf.E) 33호.

1941년 10월 모스크바(Moskau)를 향해 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 2호 전차(Panzer II) .

1941년 10월 4일 러시아(Russland)에서 전투 중인 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 3호 전차(Panzer III) 1호.

1941년 10월 4일 러시아(Russland)에서 전투 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 3호 전차(Panzer III) 22호.

사단의 모스크바(Moskau)를 향한 진격은 혹독한 날씨와 소련군 8 근위 사단 (8. Garde-Motor-Gewehr-Division) 그리고 78 소총 사단(78. Schützen-Division)의 강력한 저항을 받고 멈췄다.

모스크바(Moskau)를 향해 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 3호 전차(Panzer III) F형(Ausf F) 14호.

1941년 11월 8일 모스크바(Moskau)를 향해 진격하는 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 3호 전차(Panzer III) F형(Ausf F) 21호.

11 기갑사단은 1941년 11월 말 소련군의 반격으로 후퇴하면서 방어적 작전 (Verteidigungsoperationen)을 펼쳤다. 1942년 6월부터 보로네시(Woronesch) 탈환전에 참가한 11 기갑사단(die 11. Panzerdivision)은 계속해서 스탈린그라드(Stalingrad)를 목표로 진격했다.

1942년 동부전선 보로네시 지역(Kreis Woronesch)에서 3호 전차(Pz.Kpfw. III)에 포탄(Granaten)을 적재하는 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 15 기갑연대(15. Panzerregiment ) .

1942년부터 1943년 (Stalingrad)에서 포위되어 막대한 손실을 6 군(die 6. Armee) 작전에 . (Stalingrad) (Kaukasus)에서 (Rostov)를 .

1943년 2월 우크라이나(Ukraine) 스타로빌스크(Starobilsk) 인근에서 전투 중인 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 15 기갑연대(das 15. Panzerregiment) 4호 전차(Panzer IV) G형(Ausf. G) (왼쪽). 100 기갑척탄병연대(110. Panzergrenadier-Regiment) Sd.Kfz. 250 데마그(Demag) 경장갑병력수송차(ein leicht gepanzerter Halbkettenfahrzeug).

11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision)은 1943년 7월 쿠르스크 전투(die Schlacht von Kursk)에 참가했고, 9월에 방어 작전(die Abwehroperationen)을 펼치며 후퇴했다. 1944년 2월 코르선 체르카시(der Korsun-Tscherkassy)에서 전력을 .

1943년 11 기갑사단(die 11. Panzerdivision) 표식(Emblem)

1943년 7월 포신을 청소하는 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 4호 전차(Panzer IV).

1943년 7월 쿠르스크(Kursk)에서 진격하는 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 4호 전차(Panzer IV) .

철수한 사단은 프랑스(Frankreich) 보르도(Bordeaux)로 273 기갑사단(die 273. Reserve-Panzerdivision) . 톨루즈(Toulouse)에 주둔했던 1944년 7월 론(Rhône)으로 .

1944년 6월 프랑스(Frankreich) 보르도(Bordeaux) 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 5호 전차(PanzerIV) 판터(Panther) A형(Ausf. A) 대열.

1944년 8월 연합군(die Alliierten)이 프랑스 남부를 침공했을 때 사단은 론 회랑(der Rhône-Korridor)을 통과해 브장송(Besançon)까지 후퇴했다.

1944년 8월 말 프랑스(Frankreich) 앵(Ain) 리옹 도르 호텔(das Hotel du Lion d'Or) 앞에서 메시뫼 전투(die Schlacht von Meximieux) 후 버려진 11 기갑사단(die 11. Panzerdivision) 판터(Panther) A형(Ausf. A).

1944년 9월 1일 뫼시메 전투(die Schlacht von Meximieux) 후 앵(Ain) 숲 속에 버려진 11 기갑사단(die 11. Panzerdivision) 훔멜(Hummel) 자주포.

8월과 9월 알자스(Elsass)에서 협곡(Belfort Gap) . 아라쿠르 전투(die Schlacht von Arracourt)에 참가한 후 자르(die Saar)로 후퇴했다.

1944년 9월 프랑스(Frankreich)에서 공중 공격(Luftangriffe)에 대비해 나뭇가지로 위장하고 후퇴(Rückzug) 중인 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 5호 전차(PanzerIV) 판터(Panther) A형 (Ausf. A).

아라쿠르 전투(die Schlacht von Arracourt)

아라쿠르 전투(die Schlacht von Arracourt)는 벌지 전투(die Schlacht von Arracourt)가 벌어지기 전까지 서부전선에서 연합군과 독일군이 벌인 최대의 전차전(die Panzerschlacht)이었다. 이 전투는 우수한(der Überlegene) 성능을 가진 독일 판터(Panther) 탱크들이 성능이 떨어지는(Untergeordnet) 미군 셔먼(Sherman) 탱크에 패한 전투로 더욱 유명하다.

1944년 9월 20일 뷔르(Bures)에서 아라쿠르 전투(die Schlacht von Arracourt)에 참가한 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 판터(Panther) G형(Ausf. G) 탱크.

1944년 9월 독일 5 기갑군(5. Panzerarmee)은 캉 전투(die Schlachten bei Caen) 이래 가장 강한 전력을 갖추고 있었다. 뤼네빌(Lunéville) 일대에 주둔한 미 12 군단(die amerikanische XII. Corp)을 몰아내기 위해 300대 이상의 탱크를 동원한 이 반격작전에서 독일 기갑부대의 주력은 강력한 성능의 신형 중(中)전차 판터(Panther ) G형 탱크였다.

1944년 9월 프랑스(Frankreich) 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 5호 전차 판터(Panther) G형 432호.

1944년 9월 프랑스(Frankreich) 111 기갑여단(Panzerbrigade 111) 5호 전차 판터(Panther) G형 414호.

11 기갑사단(die 11. Panzerdivision)과 111 기갑여단(die 111. Panzerbrigade) 그리고 113 기갑여단(113. Panzerbrigade)으로 구성된 독일 5 기갑군(die 5. Panzerarmee)은 조지 S. 패튼(George S. Patton) 3 군(US 3. Armee)보다 2배나 많은 , .

1944년 9월 프랑스(Frankreich) 11 기갑사단(die 11. Panzerdivision) Sd.Kfz. 251/22 D형 하노마그(Hanomag) 병력수송장갑차(Schutzenpanzerwagen).

1944년 9월 프랑스(Frankreich) 로렌(Lothringen) 111 기갑여단(Panzerbrigade 111) Sd.Kfz. 251/1 C형 하노마그(Hanomag) 병력수송장갑차(Schutzenpanzerwagen).

역전의 용사 11 기갑사단(die 11. Panzerdivision)은 잘 훈련되고 전투로 단련(gehärtet) 된 부대였지만 계속된 전투로 장비가 부족했다. 111 기갑여단(die Panzerbrigade 111)과 113 기갑여단(die Panzerbrigade 113)은 신형 판터(Panthers) G형 탱크를 완비하고 있었지만, 승무원들이 신병이라 실전 경험이 . 그리고 모든 부대가 연료가 부족했다.

1944년 9월 프랑스(Frankreich) 로렌(Lorraine) 아라쿠르(Arracourt)에서 전투를 준비하는 111 기갑여단(Pz.Brig. 111) 5호 전차(Pz. V) 판터(Panther) G형 탱크와 기갑척탄병 들 (Panzer-Grenadiere).

111 기갑여단(Pz.Brig. 111) 5호 전차(Pz. V) 판터(Panther) G형 탱크에 탑승한 기갑척탄병들(Panzergrenadiere).

독일 5 기갑군(die deutsche 5. Panzerarmee)의 계획(Szenario)은 프랑스 북동부에 있던 미군 4 기갑사단(4. US-Panzerdivision)을 목표로 반격(Gegenangriff)을 벌이는 것이었다.

아라쿠르 전투(die Schlacht von Arracourt)에 참가한 111 기갑여단(die Panzerbrigade 111) 척탄병들(panzerbekämpfer). 이들은 전차병들과 함께 모두 실전 경험이 없는 신병(frische Besatzungen) .

독일군(die Deutschen)은 좁은 돌출부(ein schmaler Vorsprung)를 따라 전진할 수밖에 없었는데 신병들은 상황 대응 능력(taktisches Geschick)이 없었고, 결정적으로 전방에 대한 정찰 활동이 . 반면에 미군은 독일군이 어느 지점으로 이동할지 정확하게 예측하고 .

1944년 9월 19일 아라쿠르 전투(die Schlacht von Arracourt)에 참가한 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 5호 전차(Panzer V) 판터(Panther) G형 탱크들.

아라쿠르 전투(die Schlacht von Arracourt)에 참가한 11 기갑사단(die 11. Panzerdivision) 판터(Panther) G형 탱크들.

아라쿠르 마을(ein Dorf von Arracourt)에 전시된 미군 4 기갑사단(U.S. 4th Armored Division) M4 셔먼 탱크. 1944년 9월 아라쿠르 (die Schlacht von Arracourt)가 벌어진 아라쿠르(Arracourt)는 파리(Paris)를 .

전투(die Schlacht von Arracourt) 뷔르(Bures)를 통과하는 판터(Panther) .

1944년 9월 25일 (die Schlacht von Arracourt) 도중 뷔르(Bures) 바즈몽(Bauzemont)에서 11 기갑사단 판터(Panther) G형 탱크.

전투(die Schlacht von Arracourt) 도중 뷔르(Bures) 바즈몽(Bauzemont)에서 11 기갑사단 판터(Panther) G형 탱크와 기갑척탄병들(panzerbekampfers).

1944년 9월 19일부터 30일까지 (Arracourt)의 도로 표지 (Roadsign).

독일군은 미군 4 기갑사단(4th US Armored Division) M4 셔먼(Sherman)과 헬켓(Hellcat)의 집중 포격을 받았다. 잠시 후 M7 프리스트(Priester) 자주포(SPG)의 직사 포격(Kurzfeuer)과 심지어 M3 경탱크(leichter Panzer)의 37mm 주포 공격까지 받았다.

1944년 9월 18일 아라쿠르(Arracourt)로 진격하기 위해 대기 중인 미군 4 기갑사단(4. US-Panzerdivision) M4 셔먼(Sherman) 탱크들(Panzer).

1944년 9월 프랑스(Frankreich) 브리타니(Bretagne) 미군 4 기갑사단(4. US-Panzerdivision) 37 전차대대(37. Panzerbataillon) M4 셔먼(Sherman) 탱크.

1944년 9월 낭시(Nancy) 4 기갑사단(4th US Armored Division) M4A3 셔먼(Sherman) 최종 생산형(späte Produktion).

1944년 9월 낭시(Nancy) 4 기갑사단(4. US-Panzerdivision) M4A3E8 76mm 셔먼(Sherman).

조지 S. 패튼(George S. Patton, Jr.) 장군의 미 3군(US Third Army) 최선봉(die Speerspitze)으로 활동한 4 기갑사단장(kommandierte die 4. Panzerdivision) 존 S. 우드(John S. Wood ) 소장(Generalmajor).

1944년 9월 프랑스(Frankreich) 낭시(Nancy)에서 아라쿠르 전투(Schlacht von Arracourt)를 지휘하는 미 3군(US Third Army) 사령관 조지 S. 패튼 주니어(George S. Patton, Jr.) 중장(Lieutenant Allgemein).

독일군은 모든 방면(alle Seiten)에서 미군(die US-Streitkräfte)의 포격을 받았지만, 정확한 사격 지점을 알 수가 없었다. M18 (Hellcats)은 . 독일 전차병 신병(die rohen deutschen Besatzungen)들은 전의를 상실(die Moral und den Willen zum Kampf verlieren) 했다.

1944년 9월 19일 프랑스(Frankreich) 로렌(Lothringen) 아라쿠르 마을(Stadt Arracourt) 인근에서 만난 독일 기갑군(Deutsche Panzerstreitkräfte)을 향해 주포를 발사하는 미군 M18 헬켓(Hellcats) 구축전차(Panzerzerstörer ).

전투(die Schlacht von Arracourt) 도중 전방을 경계 중인 4 기갑사단(die 4. Panzerdivision) M4A3 76mm 셔먼(Sherman) 탱크.

이후 5일간 독일군(die Deutschen)은 미군 전선을 돌파하려는 절망적인 공격을 계속했지만 실패했다. 9월 21일 날씨가 개자 공군 (die US-Luftwaffe)이 전투에 동참했다. 전폭기의 반복 24시간 . 번의 극심한 반격전(bösartige Gegenangriffe)을 벌인 후 독일 기갑군(die Panzerarmee)은 기동 가능한 탱크가 25대밖에 남지 결국 후퇴했다.

1944년 9월 26일 아라쿠르(Arracourt)에서 전방을 관측하는 4 기갑사단(4. Panzerdivision) 37 전차대대(37. Panzerbataillon) B 중대(Kompanie B) M18 헬켓(Hellcat) 구축전차(Panzerzerstörer) 전차병 보이어(Kenneth Boyer) 이병(Privat).

독일 5 기갑군(die 5. Panzerarmee)은 탱크(Panzer)와 돌격포(Sturmgeschütze) 86대를 완전히 격파(völlig zerstört) 당했고 이후 미군의 반격으로 더 많은 탱크를 . 탱크 25대와 구축전차(Jagdpanzer) 7대를 . 뤼네빌(Lunéville)과 아라쿠르(Arracourt)는 전차 팬들(Fans)과 역사가들에게 전력이 열세지만 정확한 정찰(richtige Erkundung)과 우수한 통신(Kommunikation), 노련함(Manöver)으로 기술적으로 한 단계 앞선 탱크를 이길 수 있다는 사실을 보여준 의미심장한 장소가 됐다.

프랑스(Frankreich) 북동부 아라쿠르(Arracourt)에서 적 전차 10대를 격파한 4 기갑사단(4. Panzerdivision) 37 전차대대(37. Panzerbataillon) C 중대 M4 셔먼(Sherman) 탱크 전차장(Kommandant) 로이 G. 그룹스 (Roy G. Grubbs) 하사(S/Sgt.).

1944년 9월 30일 프랑스(Frankreich) 게블링(Guébling) 인근에서 격파(K.o.) 된 독일 11 기갑사단(die 11. Panzerdivision) 판터(Panther) 탱크 3대를 조사하는 미군 4 기갑사단(die 4. Panzerdivision) M4A3 76mm (Sherman) 전차병.

1944년 12월 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision)은 G 집단군(Heeresgruppe G)에 속해있었다. 벌지 전투(die Ardennenschlacht) 시작됐을 때 800명을 bis 3.500명의 . 공세가 실패한 4.000명, 25대, 18문을 보유한 11 기갑사단은 (Saarland)와 모젤 (Mosel) 레마겐 (Remagen) , 진격으로 이곳에서 .

1945년 3월 독일(Deutschland) 레마겐(Remagen) 지역 11 기갑사단(die 11. Panzerdivision) 15 기갑연대(das 15. Panzerregiment) 1 대대 4 중대 5호 전차(Panzer V) 판터(Panther) G형 432 .

다시 남부 전선(der südliche Frontabschnitt)으로 이동한 사단은 루르(das Ruhrgebiet) 에서 미군에 포위됐다. 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision)은 남동쪽으로 후퇴했고, 1945년 5월 2일 파사우(Passau)에서 미군에 항복했다.

1945년 5월 2일 독일(Deutschland) 파사우(Passau)에서 미군(US-Streitkräfte)에 항복하는 11 기갑사단(11. Panzerdivision) 병사들.

크뤼벨(Ludwig Crüwell) (1892년 - 1958년)

크뤼벨(Ludwig Crüwell) 중장(Generalleutnant). 북아프리카(North Africa)에서 에르빈 롬멜(Erwin Rommel)(왼쪽)과 대화(chats) 중인 루트비히 크뤼벨(Ludwig Crüwell) 기갑 대장(General der Panzertruppe).

1939년 12월 소장 (Generalmajor)으로 승진한 루트비히 크뤼벨(Ludwig Crüwell)은 1940년 8월부터 1년간 초대 11 기갑사단장을 맡아 발칸과 바르바로사 작전에 참여했다. 1941년 9월 중장(Generalleutnant)으로 승진해 아프리카 군단 (Deutsches Afrikakorps)을 지휘했고, 1941년 12월 기갑 대장(General der Panzertruppe)으로 승진했다. 1942년 5월 29일 타고 있던 정찰기가 격추되어 영국군에 포로가 되었다.

헤르만 발크(Hermann Balck) (1897년 – 1982년)

헤르만 발크(Hermann Balck) 기갑대장(General der Panzertruppe). 1942년 5월 벨로루시아(Byelorussia)에서 11 기갑사단장(command of the 11th Panzer Division)으로 임명된 발크(Balck)는 8월에 소장(Generalmajor)으로 승진했다.

헤르만 발크(Hermann Balck)는 제1차 세계대전과 제2차 세계대전에 모두 참전해 많은 훈장을 수상했고, 기갑 대장(General der Panzertruppe)까지 승진했다. 1942년 5월부터 동부전선(the Eastern Front) 우크라이나(Ukraine)와 남부 러시아(southern Russia)에서 11 기갑사단(the 11th Panzer Division) 을 지휘했다. 1943년 2월 스탈린그라드(Stalingrad)에서 독일 6 군(the 6th Army)이 붕괴(collapse) 됐을 때, 발크(Balck)의 11 기갑사단이 소련군(the Soviet)의 진격을 막는데 큰 공을 세웠다. 이 공적으로 발크는 전군에서 27번째 다이아몬드백엽검기사철십자훈장(the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds) 수상자가 됐다.

요한 미클(Johann Mickl) (1893년 – 1945년)

요한 미클(Johann Mickl) 중장(Generalleutnant). 1943년 러슬란트(Rusland)에서 선글라스(sunglasses)를 끼고 모터사이클(motorcycle)을 밀고 있는 11 기갑사단장(the Commander of the 11th Panzer Division) 미클(Mickl) 중장(Generalleutnant).

요한 미클(Johann Mickl)은 오스트리아 출신 독일 중장( Generalleutnant )으로 제2차 세계대전 기간 사단장( division commander)을 지냈다. 전 군에서 총 882명이 수상한 백엽기사철십자훈장(the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves) 수상자이기도 하다. 1943년 쿠르스크 전투(the Battle of Kursk) 당시 11 기갑사단장을 지냈다. 392 크로아티아 보병사단장이던 1945년 4월 10일 종전을 한 달 남기고, 유고슬라비아 빨치산(the Yugoslav Partisans) 을 토벌하던 중 당한 부상으로 사망했다. 1967년 오스트리아군(the Bundesheer)은 바트 라트커스부르크(Bad Radkersburg)에 있는 병영(barracks)을 그의 이름을 따 미클 병영(Mickl-Kaserne)으로 명명(named after him) 했다.

벤트 폰 비터스하임(Wend von Wietersheim) (1900년 - 1975년)

벤트 폰 비터스하임(Wend von Wietersheim) 중장(Generalleutnant)은 제2차 세계대전 중 백엽검기사철십자훈장(the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords) 을 수상했다. 1943년 8월 11 기갑사단장(commanding the 11th Panzer Division) 으로 임명됐고, 1944년 말 남 프랑스(the south of France)에서 툴롱(Toulon)과 니스(Nice)에 상륙한 연합군과 전투를 치렀다. 1945년 5월 체코슬로바키아(Czechoslovakia) 국경지대 바바리아(Bavaria)에서 미군 90 보병사단(the US 90th Infantry Division) 에 항복했다.

헤르베르트 에버르트(Herbert Ewert) (1894년-1988년)

헤르베르트 에버르트(Herbert Ewert) 중령(Oberstleutnant). 그의 기사철십자훈장 증서(the Knight's Cross Document).

헤르베르트 에버르트(Herbert Ewert) 중령(Oberstleutnant)은 독일 육군 11 기갑사단(11st Panzer Division) 104 기갑척탄병연대장(Kommandeur PzGrenRgt 104)으로 1942년 8월 18일 기사철십자훈장(Ritterkreuzträger)을 수상했다.


AHC: Peerless Air Ministry

Looking back on the recent events in the North Atlantic and the current state of affairs with the availability of safe havens in France the Admiralty were revising their strategic dispositions to counter and contain the Kreigsmarine’s major surface units.

With the evidence showing that in all likelihood the German Heavy Cruiser Hipper was a constructive total loss and that it would take months to clear and repair the dock in which she lay the Admiralties attention and perforce that of RAF Maritime Command now turned to the problem of containing and hopefully destroying the remaining major surface units of the Kreigsmarine. These ships were now posing a serious problem and threat. As with the Bismark now operational and the Tirpitz working up, as well as it becoming apparent that Scharnhorst had completed her repairs it would not be to long before it was theoretically possible for the Germans to send a flotilla into the Atlantic consisting of two fast fifteen inch gunned battleships, two eleven inch gunned Battle Cruisers and an eight inch gunned heavy cruiser.

If all these ships combined in a sortie at once they would form a force that would be difficult to counter. Even if the Admiralty was able to get, The Hood, Renown, Repulse and the newly commissioned battleship King George the Fifth together as a division they would be hard pressed until further support could arrive. The second of the KG V class was due to commission before Easter and hopefully this would ease the situation. The one advantage the RN truly had was the Fleet carriers and the FAA, air attack could degrade the fighting qualities of the German ships prior to an engagement and therefore ensure that the RN was fighting at advantage. Of course to attack your enemy you first had to know where they were. Signals and secret intelligence could often tell you were your enemy had been and might even tell you where they could be going but to know where your enemy actually was accuretly enough to enable an attack to be launched in reality required someone to get their mark one eyeball onto the target. This was the main task of the RN’s cruiser screen and the FAA out in the open ocean though that was not the case in the North Sea.

In what were called the Narrow Seas it was however to the RAF and principally Maritime Command that the Navy was looking too in order to contain and track the German heavy units. This of course was easier said than done but so far the combined efforts of the two services had enabled them to keep a fairly reliable plot of the location of all the German Navies major units. Sober thinkers in both the Admiralty and the RAF were well aware that by bad luck or subterfuge some but hopefully not all the German ships might evade their watchers and sortie to the open Ocean. Containing a single Panzerschiffe had proved difficult enough and the fact that the Hipper had made it to Brest unmolested had been a very sanguine experience for the British.

Therefore the news in early February that both Scharnhaust and Gneisenau had been spotted transiting the Skagerrak and that neither Maritime Command or The PRU aircraft had spotted them in any Norwegian fiord or port caused grave concern. Royal Navy units had been immediately sent to reinforce the cruisers patrolling the waters north of Iceland. Also Maritime Command had increased its patrol activity pushing aircraft and crews to the limit of their endurance. The fist break for the British came on the second of February when a Stirling LRMPA picked up two large ships heading south west less than thirty miles from the RN cruiser patrol line. Despite a delay by the Stirling aircrafts crew in realising that the ASV target they had was tracking south west and not maintaining the patrol line of the two cruisers they were expecting to find, eventually as they approached the two ships they were fired on and when they sent an indignant radio message about the cruisers aircraft identification skills only to be told that the cruisers had yet to see or hear any aircraft that day due to heavy rainsqualls all round them that the penny dropped that these were in fact two enemy warships. Due to the weather conditions producing poor visibility and skilful use of their own radars the two German battle cruisers had managed to hide in the rain squalls and evade the patrolling RN cruisers. Now it became a stern chase with the British cruisers striving to close the distance and maintain contact with the German ships whilst the Stirling sent messages to all who could hear as to what was heading their way. To the South HMS Ramalies was ordered to remain with her Convoy HX 106 for the time being but as a caution the convoy course was altered to take them on a more easterly course away from the surface threat.

Admiral Lutjens was now in a difficult position the presence of the aircraft meant that he had lost the cloak of atomicity in the vast expanse of the Ocean and with at least two RN eight inch gunned cruisers in close proximity he was being forced to steam at high speed that was consuming fuel at very high rate and straining the ships machinery. Lutjen’s could choose to turn and confront the British cruisers before they were reinforced by other RN ships. For this to succeed the Germans who had the advantage of heavier armament but slightly inferior speed would need to cripple both the British cruisers without taking serious damage themselves. The alternative for Lutjen’s was to try to slip the chase in the dark of the night whilst using the poor weather conditions to his advantage.

Later that day a patrol aircraft based in New Foundland reported a tanker of Cape Farewell that did not respond satisfactorily to the aircrafts challenge. Whilst the patrol aircraft kept in contact with the tanker using its ASV set the nearest available RN units were sent to investigate. Despite being unable to keep an aircraft in continuous contact with the tanker the LRPA were able to track her sufficiently and regain contact soon enough to guide an RN Cruiser to within RDF range on the morning of the third of February. The tanker had initially tried to bluff it out by broadcasting ‘RRR’ continually at full power on her radio. The Cruiser Captain was not fooled and as a warning shot landed close, to the German tanker Schlettstadt, she hove to and fired scuttling charges. Before she sank she sent a brief coded message warning the two German ships of her demise along with the fuel she carried.

The Radio rooms on both German Battle cruisers had picked up the message from the Schlettstadt and this now added to Lutjen’s dilemma, with his fuel replenishment ship lost and his approximate location known, with two British cruisers still in close proximity, although they had lost contact during the night, his primary objective of commerce raiding was compromised. In addition yet another message had been received from the Gneisenau informing the Admiral that the ship was having a recurrence of the problems with the high pressure steam tubes. Therefore in compliance with his orders not to risk his ships unnecessarily Lutjens gave instructions for the ships to turn their bows to the north east. The first task was to either evade or destroy the two RN cruisers shadowing him. Here the British Cruisers took a page out of the Germans play book and as soon as their surface search RDF indicated ships steaming towards them they split up and used the frequent rain squalls to disengage. Both ships did not avoid damage but by broadcasting their position and the new course off the two German ships they had accomplished their primary task.

The evasion of the RN by Scharnhorst and Gneisenau entered the legends of the Kreigsmarine and cemented their reputation as lucky ships. Despite the best efforts of Maritime Command the German ships were able to break contact and it was not until some days later that a PRU spitfire managed to photograph the two German ships being refuelled in and replenished by an Altmark class tanker in Kaa Fiord Northern Norway.

Now the problem for the British was would the two ships stay there to provide a fleet in being and threaten another breakout for the Atlantic. Would the other German heavy ships come and join them.

Was it possible to attack these warships so far north? All that could be done in the short term was keep as tight a watch on them as the weather permitted. The navy had requested the RAF to plan to bomb the ships if possible whilst the RN started planning a strike by their fleet carriers.

The British would not have long to wait for an answer as within days the anchorage was empty. Both warships headed south and as they past the south western tip of the Lofoten islands Gneisenau was struck by a single torpedo from a salvo fired by an RN submarine that had been stationed there to cover the Vest Fiord and the port of Narvick. Despite considerable flooding Gneisenau was able to steam onto Trondhiem where temporary repairs were carried out before she followed her sister ship back to Kiel for permanent repairs.

The mayhem that these two German Battle Cruisers could have caused if they had got in amongst the Atlantic convoys had sent shivers down the spines of all concerned in the Admiralty, RAF and Government in Britain.

Upon his return to the UK Sir Hugh had been embroiled in the aftermath of these events. The navy view was that it had been a very close run thing and were now calling for even more of the RAF’s resources being devoted to the Maritime war.

The success of the attack on the Hipper was causing the War Cabinet to seriously consider if an all out attack on the major German naval dockyards might be a viable way of curtailing the effectiveness of the U-boats and restraining, if not eliminating the threat the Kriegsmarine’e heavy warships.

With the current escort capabilities a daylight raid was out of the question so the decision was whether or not a night raid was practical and if the inevitable cost in aircrews and aircraft would be justified. To help with making this decision Sir Peter had instigated an investigation into defining some of the important factors that had to be fulfilled to make an attack on any of the major German Naval Dockyards viable.

These included the type of target that could be bombed.

The density of such targets with the target area.

The ease with which the designated targets could be identified at night.

Whether the selected targets were actually vulnerable to the ordinance that the RAF could place on target.

The level of opposition expected both in AAA and night fighters.

Whether a single target should be hit and the further locations hit in sequence or whether this was a one time operation and a number of locations had to be hit simultaneously.

Could Bomber Command launch sufficient sorties to hit multiple targets or would this dispersal of effort make all the attacks ineffectual.

However much effort was put into resolving these questions the answers could not be obtained overnight so in tandem another plan was being pursued as a means of constraining and curtailing the ability of the Kriegsmarine to conduct another major sortie.

To this end the efforts to track down any more remaining German supply ships at large in the oceans of the world were redoubled. Also the mine laying operations of both the RN and the RAF were being reassessed and redirected accordingly.


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Bemerkungen:

  1. Greguska

    Darin ist etwas. Natürlich vielen Dank für die Informationen.

  2. Brice

    Diese lustige Meinung

  3. Taron

    Meiner Meinung nach irren Sie sich. Lassen Sie uns darüber diskutieren. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden reden.

  4. Hamal

    Und wo Logik?

  5. Vudogal

    Du hast nicht recht. Lassen Sie uns dies diskutieren. Senden Sie mir eine E -Mail an PM.

  6. Garnett

    Sicherlich. Also passiert. Lassen Sie uns diese Frage diskutieren.



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