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Buena Ventura AK - Geschichte

Buena Ventura AK - Geschichte


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Buena Ventura

Buena Ventura ist eine Stadt in Kolumbien und Kuba.

(AK: T. 4881; 1. 405'; T. 52'5"; dr. 25'; s. 10.5 k.; kpl. 93; a. 15")

Buena Ventura (Nr. 1335), ein Frachtschiff, wurde 1913 von Northumberland Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Howden-on-Tyne, England, vom Stapel gelassen; requiriert von der Schifffahrtsbehörde zur Verwendung durch die Armee; an die Marine überführt 25. Juli 1918; in Auftrag gegeben 26. Juli 1918, Lieutenant Commander H. Fitzsimons, USNRF, Kommandant; und dem Naval Overseas Transportation Service gemeldet.

Am 9. August 1918 segelte sie nach New York, um sich einem Konvoi anzuschließen, der am 13. abfuhr. Am 14. September segelte sie nach dem Entladen ihrer Ladung in LaPallice, Royan und Bordeaux, Frankreich, in einem Konvoi nach Philadelphia. Zwei Tage außerhalb des Hafens wurde der Konvoi vom deutschen U-Boot U-46 angegriffen und um 20:45 Uhr wurde Buena Ventura von zwei Torpedos getroffen. Sie wurde aufgegeben und sank wenige Minuten später unter Verlust von 19 Mann.


Antidiskriminierungsgesetz von 1945 und Elizabeth Peratrovich

Der Alaska Anti-Discrimination Act von 1945 war das erste Antidiskriminierungsgesetz in der amerikanischen Geschichte. Diese Gesetzgebung wurde von der Alaska Native Sisterhood (ANS) und der Alaska Native Brotherhood (ANB) angeführt, darunter Tlingit und ANS Grand President Elizabeth Peratrovich.

Serumlauf von 1925

Im Januar 1925 ereignete sich in Nome ein Diphtherie-Ausbruch, der Befürchtungen aufkommen ließ, dass sich eine Epidemie ausbreiten und Tausende töten könnte, wenn keine Antitoxin-Medikamente geliefert würden. Von Nenana aus fuhren Hundeschlittenteams 674 Meilen nach Nome und lieferten das dringend benötigte Antitoxin-Serum. An viele Aspekte dieser Reise wird jährlich beim Hundeschlittenrennen Iditarod gedacht.

Japanische Internierung in Alaska während des Zweiten Weltkriegs

Executive Order 9066, ausgestellt von Präsident Franklin D. Roosevelt am 19. Februar 1942, genehmigte die Inhaftierung japanischer Amerikaner, italienischer Amerikaner und deutscher Amerikaner. In Alaska lebende japanische Amerikaner wurden festgenommen und in ein vorübergehendes Internierungslager in Fort Richardson gebracht, bevor sie in die Lower 48 gebracht wurden.

Unangax̂ (Aleuten) Umsiedlung während des Zweiten Weltkriegs

Nach dem japanischen Angriff auf die Aleuten in Alaska am 3. Juni 1942 evakuierten Beamte die Ureinwohner Alaskas von den Aleuten und Pribilof Inseln. Diese Alaska-Eingeborenen wurden in sechs Gebiete in Südost-Alaska umgesiedelt, einige wurden in alten und verfallenen Konservenfabriken untergebracht. Der Mangel an angemessener Nahrung, Unterkunft und medizinischer Versorgung führte zu Todesfällen und Traumata für die Umgesiedelten.

Internate in Alaska

Historische Internate für Ureinwohner Alaskas wurden von amerikanischen Neuankömmlingen gegründet, um die Ureinwohner zu detribalisieren und in die euro-amerikanische Kultur zu integrieren. Diese Schulen wurden bis um die Wende des 20. Jahrhunderts von christlichen Missionaren verschiedener Konfessionen betrieben, als viele dieser Schulen von der Bundesregierung übernommen wurden.

Der Erste Weltkrieg und die Alaska-Erfahrung

Der Erste Weltkrieg war ein globaler Krieg, der von Juli 1914 bis November 1918 dauerte und über neun Millionen Kämpfer und sieben Millionen Zivilisten forderte. Noch bevor die Vereinigten Staaten 1917 in den Krieg eintraten, traten alaskische Frauen dem Roten Kreuz bei und alaskische Männer reisten nach Kanada, um sich für britische Expeditionsstreitkräfte zu engagieren und dort zu kämpfen. In Alaska meldeten sich zwischen 1917 und 1918 mehr als 10.000 Männer zum Dienst.

Die Exxon Valdez Ölpest

Am 24. März 1989 um 00:04 Uhr der Öltanker Exxon Valdez traf Bligh Reef vor Prince William Sound, Alaska, was zu einer der größten Ölkatastrophen in der Geschichte der Vereinigten Staaten führte. Ungefähr 11 Millionen Gallonen Rohöl wurden über eine Fläche von 460 Meilen vom Bligh Reef bis zum Dorf Chignik verschüttet und wirkten sich auf 1.300 Meilen der Küste Alaskas aus.


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Buena Ventura AK - Geschichte

15.10. - 22.10. Tyler, TX
27.10. - 03.11. Yuma, AZ
07.11. - 20.11. San José, Kalifornien
07.12. - 31.12. San José, Kalifornien

01.01. - 20.01. San José, Kalifornien
02/09 - 02/16 . Ukiah, Kalifornien
21.02. - 27.02. Napa, Kalifornien
03/03 - 03/10 . Santa Barbara, Kalifornien
20.05. - 29.05. Vacaville, Kalifornien
09.06. - 16.06. Fairbanks, AK
18.06. - 25.06. Kenai, AK
30.06. - 06.07. Juneau, AK
07/12 - 07/16 . San José, Kalifornien
19.07. - 26.07. Tyler, TX
08/01 - 08/07 . Killeen, TX
08/11 - 08/18 . Hawthorne, Kalifornien
09/08 - 09/15 . Ankerplatz, AK
21.10. - 28.10. San José, Kalifornien
30.10. - 04.11. San Diego, Kalifornien
09.11. - 16.11. Riverside, Kalifornien
24.11. - 31.11. Ventura, Kalifornien
12.09. - 15.12. Vista, Kalifornien

14.02. - 24.02. Chico, Kalifornien
03/02 - 03/09 . Stanford, Kalifornien
03/12 - 03/18 . West Hollywood, Kalifornien
20.03. - 30.03. Santa Rosa, Kalifornien
04/08 - 04/20 . Atlanta, GA
24.04. - 04.05. Heiße Quellen, AR
09.05. - 19.05. Pottsville, PA
23.05. - 30.05. Kearney, NE
06/07 - 06/15 . Chicago, Illinois
26.06. - 06.07. San Antonio, TX
07/12 - 07/19 . Fort Wayne, IN
22.07. - 29.07. Ashtabula, OH
08/04 - 08/11 . Las Vegas, Nevada
14.08. - 26.08. San José, Kalifornien
28.08. - 02.09. Hollister, Kalifornien
09/03 - 09/07 . Santa Cruz, Kalifornien
09/12 - 09/21 . Denver, CO
25.09. - 02.10. Eugen, OR
10/10 - 10/20 . Whittier, Kalifornien
25.10. - 03.11. Handel, Kalifornien
08.11. - 16.11. Tausend Eichen, Kalifornien
21.11. - 30.11. Tulsa, OK
12.07. - 14.12. Dallas, TX

1987 Zeitplan "A"

01/03 - 01/10 . San Fernando, Kalifornien
20.01. - 27.01. Maui, HALLO
29.01. - 05.02. Honolulu, HALLO
02/06 - 02/12 . Hilo, HALLO
14.02. - 20.02. Kona, HI
22.02. - 28.02. Kauai, HI
20.03. - 29.03. Reno, NV
04/07 - 04/14 . Champagner, IL
18.04. - 24.04. Reynoldsburg, Ohio
27.04. - 03.05. Frankfurt, KY
08.05. - 16.05. Cincinnati, Ohio
20.05. - 26.05. Comer, GA
01.06. - 07.06. St. Louis, MO
06/11 - 06/17 . Sioux Center, IA
20.06. - 27.06. Cambridge, MN
29.06. - 05.07. Milwaukee, Wisconsin
07/08 - 07/14 . Escanaba, Michigan
16.07. - 23.07. Chicago, Illinois
26.07. - 02.08. Ottawa, IL
08/04 - 08/10 . Pittsburgh, PA
08/12 - 08/18 . Clarks-Gipfel, PA
20.08. - 26.08. Cortland, NY
09/07 - 09/13 . Athen, TN
17.09. - 24.09. Albany, NY
10/07 - 10/10 . Raleigh, NC
10/10 - 10/13 . Fayetteville, NC
15.10. - 22.10. Charlotte, NC
24.10. - 30.10. Kolumbus, GA
01.11. - 07.11. New Orleans, LA
09.11. - 15.11. Birmingham, AL
28.11. - 04.12. Ozark, AL
12/07 - 12/13 . Pensacola, Florida
15.12. - 22.12. Fort Lauderdale, FL

1987 Fahrplan "B"

04/05 - 04/12 . Fremont, Kalifornien
18.04. - 24.04. Arcata, Kalifornien
27.04. - 03.05. Redding, CA
05/05 - 05/12 . Los Angeles, Kalifornien
20.05. - 29.05. Houston, Texas
01.06. - 07.06. Fronleichnam, TX
06/10 - 06/16 . Appleton, Wisconsin
21.06. - 27.06. Montrose, CO
07/03 - 07/10 . Wichita, KS
17.07. - 25.07. Minot, ND
29.07. - 04.08. Fergus Falls, MN
08/08 - 08/15 . South St. Paul, MN
18.08. - 24.08. Sioux City, IA
09/01 - 09/07 . Huron, SD
09/11 - 09/17 . Macomb, IL
30.09. - 06.10. Big Spring, TX
10/10 - 10/17 . Albuquerque, NM
29.10. - 04.11. Fresno, Kalifornien
08.11. - 15.11. Monterey, Kalifornien

1988 Zeitplan "A"

18.01. - 31.01. West Palm Bch, FL
02/04 - 02/11 . Jacksonville, Florida
27.02. - 04.03. Inverness, Florida
03/08 - 03/14 . Albany, GA
18.03. - 24.03. Carrollton, Georgia
28.03. - 03.04. Macon, GA
04/08 - 04/14 . Greenville, SC
18.04. - 24.04. Asheville, NC
28.04. - 02.05. Steubenville, Ohio
05/04 - 05/10 . Johnstown, PA
13.05.-19.05. Norfolk, Virginia
27.05. - 31.05. Comer, GA
06/04 - 06/12 . Little Rock, AR
17.06. - 25.06. Lenoir City, TN
28.06. - 04.07. Atlanta, GA
07/09 - 07/15 . Sankt Petersburg, FL
24.07. - 31.07. Orlando, Florida
08/04 - 08/10 . Louisville, KY
15.08. - 21.08. Carlisle, PA
26.08. - 01.09. Dünkirchen, NY
09/08 - 09/14 . Elmhurst, IL
10/07 - 10/13 . Norfolk, NE
17.10. - 23.10. Cleveland, Ohio
26.10. - 01.11. Toledo, OH
07.11. - 13.11. Jaspis, AL

1988 Zeitplan "B"

04/10 - 04/17 . San Francisco, Kalifornien
05/04 - 05/10 . Vancouver, Kanada
17.05. - 23.05. Salina, KS
26.05. - 01.06. Houston, Texas
06/04 - 06/10 . Biloxi, MS
21.06. - 27.06. Bossier City, LA
07/02 - 07/07 . Des Plaines, IL
07/09 - 07/15 . St. Peters, MO
17.07. - 24.07. Evansville, IN
27.07. - 02.08. Flint, MI
08/05 - 08/11 . Des Moines, IA
14.08. - 20.08. Omaha, NE
24.08. - 30.08. Loveland, CO
09/03 - 09/09 . Los Angeles, Kalifornien
13.09. - 19.09. Porterville, Kalifornien
10/03 - 10/09 . Salem, OR
07.11. - 13.11. Riverside, Kalifornien
15.11. - 18.11. Hawthorne, Kalifornien

1989 Zeitplan "A"

26.02. - 04.03. Lubbock, TX
03/06 - 03/12 . Pilotpunkt, TX
04/03 - 04/09 . Melbourne, FL
14.04. - 20.04. Greenville, NC
25.04. - 01.05. Große Steinlücke, VA
05/05 - 05/11 . Winston-Salem, NC
17.05. - 21.05. Chattanooga, TN
25.05. - 29.05. Comer, GA
01.06. - 07.06. Marion, IN
22.06. - 28.06. Staatliches College, PA
07/02 - 07/08 . Massena, NY
07/12 - 07/18 . Bronx, NY
23.07. - 29.07. Greenfield, MA
08/01 - 08/13 . Beverly, MA
18.08. - 24.08. Oneonta, NY
27.08. - 04.09. Orchard Park, NY
09/11 - 09/17 . Kokomo, IN
24.09. - 01.10. Baton Rouge, LA
16.10. - 22.10. Mobil, AL
27.10. - 02.11. Jacksonville Bch, FL
11.07. - 17.11. Baymon, Puerto Rico

1989 Zeitplan "B"

04/09 - 04/15 . Lake Charles, LA
20.04. - 26.04. Kap Girardeau, MO
01.05. - 07.05. Traverse City, MI
05/10 - 05/17 . Aurora, IL
23.05. - 29.05. Alton, IL
06/02 - 06/08 . Lincoln, NE
13.06. - 19.06. Valley City, ND
23.06. - 29.06. Pontiac, IL
01.07. - 04.07. Rockford, Illinois
07/09 - 07/15 . Laramie, WY
28.07. - 03.08. Keystone, SD
08/07 - 08/13 . Grand Island, NE
17.08. - 23.08. Maryville, TN
09/06 - 09/12 . Round Rock, TX
15.09. - 22.09. Ventura, Kalifornien
10/02 - 10/08 . Las Vegas, Nevada
23.10. - 27.10. Orange, CA
03.11. - 09.11. Camp Pendleton, Kalifornien
11.10. - 17.11. Glendale, Kalifornien
19.11. - 26.11. Hawthorne, Kalifornien

1989 Zeitplan "C"

15.04. - 23.04. Sheboygan, WI
25.05. - 29.05. Houston, Texas
30.06. - 04.07. Detroit, Michigan
08/12 - 08/20 . San José, Kalifornien

1990 Zeitplan "A"

04/02 - 04/08 . Melbourne, FL
30.04. - 06.05. Snellville, GA
14.05. - 20.05. Erie, PA
24.05. - 30.05. Mentor, OH
06/02 - 06/08 . Hyannis, MA
06/11 - 06/17 . Wilkes-Barre, PA
20.06. - 26.06. Richmond, IN
30.06. - 06.07. Übereinstimmung, NH
08/09 - 08/15 . Bangor, ME
09.09. - 16.09. Asheville, NC
20.09. - 26.09. Greenville, SC
29.09. - 05.10. Gaffney, SC
10/09 - 10/15 . Lake City, FL
18.10. - 24.10. Rockwood, TN
28.10. - 03.11. Butler, AL
11.05. - 12.11. Zachary, LA

1990 Zeitplan "B"

04/05 - 04/11 . Alamo, TX
14.04. - 22.04. Waco, TX
24.04. - 30.04. San Antonio, TX
06.05. - 12.05. Glenwood, IL
16.05. - 21.05. Mailand, TN
27.05. - 03.06. Ness City, KS
06/08 - 06/14 . Colorado Spgs, CO
18.06. - 24.06. Kansas City, MO
07/01 - 07/07 . Seward, NE
07/11 - 07/17 . Skokie, IL
21.07. - 28.07. Cheyenne, WY
08/02 - 08/19 . Kolumbus, OH
23.08. - 29.08. Äsche, MI
09/02 - 09/08 . Hügel, IL
09/10 - 09/16 . Murphysboro, IL
19.09. - 25.09. Peoria, IL
29.09. - 05.10. Springfield, IL
10/10 - 10/16 . Memphis, TN
19.10. - 27.10. Longview, TX
11.05. - 11.11. George AFB, CA
18.11. - 24.11. Hawthorne, Kalifornien

1990 Zeitplan "C"

17.05. - 20.05. Anniston, AL
25.05. - 28.05. Comer, GA
07/08 - 07/22 . San José, Kalifornien
08/03 - 08/12 . Rapid City, SD

1991 Zeitplan "A"

22.04. - 28.04. Carson City, NV
14.05. - 20.05. Northlake, IL
23.05. - 27.05. Comer, GA
30.05. - 05.06. Hamilton, OH
17.06. - 23.06. Queens, NY
29.06. - 05.07. Olean, NY
07/09 - 07/15 . Peekskill, NY
19.07. - 25.07. Lockport, NY
28.07. - 03.08. Rochester, NY
08/06 - 08/12 . Providence, RI
16.08. - 22.08. Gärtner, MA
26.08. - 01.09. Watertown, NY
09/05 - 09/18 . Rutland, VT
10/03 - 10/09 . Virginia Beach, Virginia
26.10. - 01.11. St. Augustine, FL
11.06. - 12.11. Metairie, LA

1991 Fahrplan "B"

04/07 - 04/14 . Melbourne, FL
17.04. - 23.04. Sankt Petersburg, FL
29.04. - 05.05. Union, SC
17.05. - 20.05. Gebrochener Pfeil, OK
24.05. - 27.05. Houston, Texas
31.05. - 06.06. Cahokia, IL
06/09 - 06/15 . Davenport, IA
24.06. - 30.06. Tuscumbia, AL
07/08 - 07/14 . Gering, NE
17.07. - 23.07. Kolumbus, NE
26.07. - 01.08. Chisholm, MN
08/04 - 08/10 . Mankato, MN
14.08. - 20.08. Ypsilanti, MI
23.08. - 29.08. Berg Clemens, MI
09/01 - 09/07 . Kaltwasser, MI
09/10 - 09/15 . Kokomo, IN
18.09. - 23.09. Sikeston, MO
27.09. - 03.10. Ellinwood, KS
11.10. - 16.11. Ventura, Kalifornien
24.11. - 30.11. Hawthorne, Kalifornien

1991 Fahrplan "C"

13.06. - 18.06. San Diego, Kalifornien
21.06. - 23.06. Gilroy, Kalifornien
29.06. - 02.07. Austin, TX
09/02 - 09/08 . Schwadfelsen, AZ

1992 Zeitplan "A"

19.01. - 26.01. San José, Kalifornien
04/05 - 04/11 . Parma, OH
27.04. - 03.05. Dahlonega, Georgia
05/11 - 05/17 . Bloomington, IN
21.05. - 25.05. Comer, GA
29.05. - 04.06. Marion, IN
06/07 - 06/13 . Leetonia, OH
16.06. - 22.06. Muncy, PA
25.06. - 01.07. Eremitage, PA
13.07. - 19.07. Lake Placid, NY
27.07. - 02.08. White Plains, NY
08/08 - 08/16 . Hamilton, Ontario, Kanada
19.08. - 25.08. Dünkirchen, NY
28.08. - 03.09. Indiana, PA
09/06 - 09/12 . Leiden, NY
14.09. - 20.09. Kokomo, IN
28.09. - 04.10. Charlotte, AR
10/08 - 10/14 . Crawfordsville, IN
17.10. - 23.10. Karthago, MO
09.11. - 15.11. Natchez, MS

1992 Fahrplan "B"

15.01. - 19.01. Clovis, Kalifornien
25.02. - 02.03. Barstow, Kalifornien
03/06 - 03/12 . Boulder City, NV
29.03. - 05.04. Melbourne, FL
04/08 - 04/14 . Winnsboro, LA
20.04. - 26.04. Lafayette, LA
05/12 - 05/18 . Springfield, MO
22.05. - 28.05. Minneola, KS
06/02 - 06/08 . Pagosa Springs, CO
06/12 - 06/18 . Azle, TX
21.06. - 27.06. Enid, OK
07/07 - 07/11 . Rapid City, SD
13.07. - 19.07. Bolingbrook, IL
08/07 - 08/13 . Negaunee, MI
17.08. - 23.08. Waupaca, Wisconsin
09/04 - 09/10 . Merton, Wisconsin
13.09. - 19.09. Mount Vernon, IL
21.09. - 27.09. Woodridge, IL
01.10. - 07.10. Bescheiden, TX
10/09 - 10/17 . Angleton, TX
22.10. - 28.10. Beaumont, TX
09.11. - 15.11. Buena Park, Kalifornien
22.11. - 28.11. Hawthorne, Kalifornien
30.11. - 06.12. El Centro, Kalifornien

1992 Fahrplan "C"

22.05. - 31.05. Indian Canyon, Kalifornien
07/03 - 07/09 . Farmington, New York

1993 Zeitplan "A"

03/08 - 03/14 . Livermore, Kalifornien
19.03. - 23.03. Manteca, Kalifornien
26.03. - 02.04. Ridgecrest, CA
25.04. - 09.05. Saginaw, MI
05/12 - 05/18 . Findlay, OH
30.05. - 31.05. Washingtonville, Ohio
06/07 - 06/13 . Indianapolis, IN
17.06. - 23.06. Newport, KY
29.06. - 05.07. Taubenschmiede, TN
15.07. - 21.07. Agana, Guam
23.07. - 27.07. Saipan, Marianen
30.07. - 05.08. Maui, HALLO
08/07 - 08/13 . Molokai, HI
24.08. - 30.08. Killeen, TX
09/04 - 09/10 . Shakopee, MN
13.09. - 19.09. Neillsville, Wisconsin
23.09. - 29.09. Alexandria, IN
01.10. - 07.10. Südkurve, IN
10/10 - 10/16 . Hochland, IN
01.11. - 07.11. Brea, Kalifornien
09.11. - 15.11. Buena Park, Kalifornien

1993 Zeitplan "B"

20.03. - 26.03. Seite, AZ
04.04. - 04.10. Latrobe, PA
19.04. - 25.04. Melbourne, FL
28.04. - 04.05. Tallapoosa, GA
05/07 - 05/13 . Warner Robins, Georgia
17.05. - 23.05. Dothan, AL
27.05. - 31.05. Comer, GA
06/08 - 06/14 . Camp Lejeune, NC
18.06. - 24.06. Martinsburg, WV
29.06. - 05.07. Bath, New York
07/08 - 07/14 . Lowell, MA
17.07. - 23.07. Worcester, MA
25.07. - 31.07. Fall River, MA
08/06 - 08/08 . Hamilton, Ontario
08/12 - 08/18 . Glens Falls, NY
22.08. - 28.08. Ost-Syrakus, NY
09/01 - 09/07 . Punxsutawney, PA
09/12 - 09/19 . Asheville, NC
23.09. - 29.09. Huntsville, MO
10/02 - 10/08 . Hays, KS
10/11 - 10/17 . Muskogee, OK
29.10. - 04.11. Houma, LA
07.11. - 13.11. Metairie, LA
21.11. - 27.11. Hawthorne, Kalifornien

1993 Zeitplan "C"

05/10 - 05/16 . Hawthorne, NV
07/01 - 07/07 . Crescent City, Kalifornien
25.10. - 30.10. März AFB, CA

1994 Zeitplan "A"

27.02. - 05.03. Death Valley, Kalifornien
04.04. - 04.10. Mitchell, SD
13.04. - 19.04. Girard, KS
22.04. - 28.04. Tishomingo, OK
01.05. - 07.05. Rogers, AR
05/10 - 05/16 . Dixon, MO
19.05. - 25.05. Marshall, IL
27.05. - 02.06. East Liverpool, Ohio
06/06 - 06/12 . Indianapolis, IN
14.06. - 20.06. Newark, Ohio
22.06. - 28.06. Olean, NY
07/01 - 07/05 . Philadelphia, PA
07/08 - 07/14 . Pittston, PA
18.07. - 24.07. Ohsweken, Kanada
28.07. - 03.08. Haverhill, MA
08/07 - 08/13 . Madawaska, ME
15.08. - 21.08. Bangor, ME
28.08. - 09.10. Bennington, VT
14.09. - 18.09. Kokomo, IN
10/04 - 10/10 . Lynchburg, TN
23.10. - 29.10. Zachary, LA
07.11. - 13.11. Ventura, Kalifornien
16.11. - 22.11. Stockton, Kalifornien

1994 Zeitplan "B"

04/09 - 04/15 . Plant City, FL
18.04. - 24.04. Melbourne, FL
05/07 - 05/13 . Morehead City, NC
16.05. - 22.05. Cartersville, Georgia
25.05. - 30.05. Comer, GA
06/02 - 06/08 . Lancaster, PA
06/11 - 06/19 . Eremitage, PA
23.06. - 29.06. Stanton, Michigan
07/01 - 07/07 . Midland, MI
07/11 - 07/17 . Palos Hills, IL
20.07. - 26.07. Oneida, WI
28.07. - 04.08. Oschkosch, WI
08/08 - 08/14 . Kasson, MN
17.08. - 23.08. Unionville, MO
26.08. - 01.09. Hillsboro, Ohio
09/04 - 09/12 . Martinsburg, WV
16.09. - 22.09. Fairfield, IL
26.09. - 02.10. Jackson, MS
10/05 - 10/11 . Bossier City, LA
15.10. - 21.10. Amarillo, TX
24.10. - 30.10. La Jara, CO
05.11. - 13.11. Buena Park, Kalifornien
15.11. - 21.11. Santa Clarita, Kalifornien
23.11. - 29.11. Hawthorne, Kalifornien

1995 Zeitplan "A"

23.04. - 29.04. Davis, Kalifornien
08.05. - 14.05. Ridgecrest, CA
26.05. - 01.06. Fairbanks, AK
06/03 - 06/09 . Ankerplatz, AK
06/11 - 06/17 . Soldotna, AK
22.06. - 28.06. Juneau, AK
07/09 - 07/15 . Missoula, MT
17.07. - 23.07. Great Falls, MT
25.07. - 31.07. Helena, MT
08/02 - 08/08 . Bozeman, MT
13.08. - 19.08. Büffel, NY
23.08. - 29.08. Meredith, NH
09/01 - 09/07 . Pembroke, MA
09/10 - 09/16 . Springfield, MA
19.09. - 25.09. West Haven, CT
28.09. - 04.10. York, PA
10/07 - 10/13 . Carmel, NY
19.10. - 25.10. Union, New Jersey
30.10. - 05.11. Succasunna, New Jersey

1995 Fahrplan "B"

15.03. - 21.03. Valdosta, GA
24.03. - 30.03. Leesburg, Florida
04/03 - 04/09 . Melbourne, FL
15.04. - 21.04. Tampa, Florida
24.04. - 30.04. Augusta, GA
05/04 - 05/10 . Libanon, PA
14.05. - 20.05. Erie, PA
23.05. - 29.05. Kirtland, Ohio
06/05 - 06/11 . Bismarck, ND
14.06. - 20.06. Trotz, OH
23.06. - 29.06. Rochester, PA
07/02 - 07/08 . Alpena, MI
07/12 - 07/18 . Waterloo, NY
20.07. - 26.07. Binghamton, NY
30.07. - 05.08. Milton, PA
08/10 - 08/16 . Crystal Falls, MI
19.08. - 24.08. Green Bay, Wisconsin
26.08. - 31.08. Milwaukee, Wisconsin
09/07 - 09/13 . Fort Dodge, IA
24.09. - 30.09. Decorah, IA
10/04 - 10/10 . Bartlesville, OK
13.10. - 19.10. Emporia, KS
21.10. - 27.10. Wichita Falls, TX
01.11. - 07.11. Winnemucca, NV
11.10. - 18.11. Buena Park, Kalifornien
20.11. - 26.11. Hawthorne, Kalifornien

1995 Zeitplan "C"

24.05. - 29.05. Comer, GA
06/05 - 06/11 . Indianapolis, IN
10/02 - 10/08 . Azusa, Kalifornien

1996 Zeitplan "A"

13.03. - 19.03. La Porte, TX
21.03. - 27.03. Bastrop, LA
04/06 - 04/12 . Perkinston, MS
15.04. - 21.04. Melbourne, FL
24.04. - 30.04. Tampa, FL
05/04 - 05/10 . Bergheim, TN
13.05. - 19.05. Fort Meade, MD
22.05. - 28.05. Batavia, NY
31.05. - 06.06. Kingston, NY
06/10 - 06/16 . Indianapolis, IN
19.06. - 25.06. Richmond, IN
28.06. - 04.07. Effingham, IL
07/07 - 07/13 . Fort Campbell, KY
21.07. - 27.07. Boalsburg, PA
30.07. - 05.08. Kittanning, PA
08/08 - 08/14 . Clarks-Gipfel, PA
24.08. - 30.08. Somerset, KY
09/05 - 09/11 . Put-In-Bay, OH
14.09. - 20.09. Youngstown, Ohio
24.09. - 30.09. Mayville, NY
10/05 - 10/11 . Südkurve, IN
15.10. - 21.10. Crossville, TN
24.10. - 30.10. Greers Fähre, AR
03.11. - 09.11. Buena Vista, CO

1996 Zeitplan "B"

05/05 - 05/11 . Chico, Kalifornien
14.05. - 20.05. Yountville, Kalifornien
23.05. - 29.05. Bischof, CA
01.06. - 07.06. Joshua Tree, Kalifornien
06/12 - 06/18 . Pfund Sterling, CO
21.06. - 27.06. Golden, CO
30.06. - 06.07. Meeker, CO
07/09 - 07/15 . Havre, MT
18.07. - 24.07. Abrechnungen, MT
29.07. - 04.08. Glendive, MT
08/07 - 08/13 . Sioux Center, IA
16.08. - 22.08. Atlantik, IA
09/02 - 09/08 . Skidmore, MO
09/10 - 09/16 . Hannibal, MO
19.09. - 25.09. Farmington, MO
28.09. - 04.10. Galesburg, IL
10/10 - 10/13 . Bonaparte, IA
17.10. - 23.10. Tonganoxie, KS
26.10. - 01.11. Medizin Lodge, KS
08.11. - 17.11. Buena Park, Kalifornien
24.11. - 30.11. Hawthorne, Kalifornien

1996 Zeitplan "C"

21.05. - 27.05. Palos Verdes, Kalifornien
20.06. - 26.06. West Palm Bch, FL
30.06. - 06.07. Memphis, TN
07/10 - 07/16 . Eremitage, PA
20.07. - 26.07. Cleveland, Ohio
18.08. - 24.08. Chicago, Illinois
09/10 - 09/16 . Cedar Rapids, IA
19.09. - 26.09. Muskatin, IA
29.09. - 05.10. Coffeyville, KS
17.10. - 23.10. Shawnee, okay
28.10. - 03.11. Novato, Kalifornien
11.06. - 12.11. Hayward, Kalifornien

1997 Zeitplan "A"

15.03. - 21.03. St. Amant, LA
24.03. - 30.03. Fort Myers, Florida
04.04. - 04.10. Tampa, FL
14.04. - 20.04. Melbourne, FL
09.05. - 15.05. Findlay, OH
20.05. - 26.05. Zanesville, Ohio
30.05. - 05.06. Akron, OH
06/09 - 06/15 . Ft Benjamin Harrison, IN
18.06. - 24.06. Belleville, Michigan
07/01 - 07/07 . LaCrosse, Wisconsin
14.07. - 20.07. Kane, PA
23.07. - 29.07. Rom, NY
08/01 - 08/07 . Newark, NY
08/11 - 08/17 . Enosburg Falls, VT
23.08. - 01.09. Sandusky, MI
09/04 - 09/10 . St. Marys, PA
15.09. - 21.09. Gloucester, MA
23.09. - 29.09. Stoneham, MA
01.10. - 07.10. Pittsfield, MA
10/10 - 10/16 . Harrisburg, PA
19.10. - 25.10. Pleasantville, NY
11.04. - 11.11. Portsmouth, Ohio
17.11. - 23.11. Gilroy, Kalifornien

1997 Zeitplan "B"

04.04. - 04.10. Lake Isabella, Kalifornien
13.04. - 19.04. Tempelstadt, Kalifornien
22.04. - 28.04. Westminster, Kalifornien
01.05. - 07.05. Ventura, Kalifornien
05/12 - 05/18 . Santa Barbara, Kalifornien
22.05. - 28.05. Alamagordo, NM
06/02 - 06/08 . El Reno, OK
06/11 - 06/17 . Topeka, KS
22.06. - 29.06. Boonville, MO
07/04 - 07/10 . Braunschweig, GA
15.07. - 21.07. El Dorado, KS
25.07. - 31.07. Claremore, OK
08/03 - 08/09 . Bloomfield NM
22.08. - 28.08. Fairmont, MN
09/01 - 09/07 . Skidmore, MO
15.09. - 21.09. Kokomo, IN
24.09. - 30.09. St. Paul, Virginia
10/04 - 10/08 . Venedig, FL
10/12 - 10/18 . Neue Straßen, LA
23.10. - 29.10. Clovis, NM
31.10. - 04.11. Silberstadt, NM
08.11. - 16.11. Buena Park, Kalifornien
23.11. - 29.11. Hawthorne, Kalifornien

1997 Zeitplan "C"

23.02. - 01.03. Death Valley, Kalifornien
15.03. - 21.03. Santa Cruz, Kalifornien
05/06 - 05/12 . Barstow, Kalifornien
20.05. - 26.05. Dallas, TX
06/02 - 06/08 . Pine Ridge, SD
13.06. - 19.06. Coos Bay, OR
23.06. - 29.06. Boise, ID
07/03 - 07/09 . South Whidbey Island, WA
07/12 - 07/18 . Tacoma, WA
22.07. - 28.07. Ketchikan, AK
31.07. - 06.08. Klarock, AK
08/09 - 08/15 . Sitka, AK
18.08. - 24.08. Wrangell, AK
27.08. - 02.09. Haines, AK
09/10 - 09/16 . Ignacio, CO
25.09. - 05.10. Palmenwüste, Kalifornien
10/11 - 10/17 . Bakersfield, Kalifornien
03.11. - 09.11. Ridgecrest, CA

1998 Zeitplan "A"

16.02. - 22.02. Burbank, CA
25.02. - 03.03. Laughlin, NV
06.03. - 12.03. Raton, NM
20.03. - 26.03. Longview, TX
29.03. - 04.04. El Dorado, AR
17.04. - 23.04. Tahlequah, OK
29.04. - 05.05. Covina, CA
05/10 - 05/16 Chewelah, WA
19.05. - 25.05. Leavenworth, WA
29.05. - 03.06. Riverside, CA
06.06. - 12.06. Klamath Falls, OR
18.06. - 20.06. Moorhead, MN
23.06. - 29.06. Kavalier, ND
07.02. - 07.08. Lafayette, IN
17.07. - 23.07. Pontiac, MI
26.07. - 01.08. Imlay City, MI
08.04. - 08.10. Coloma, MI
13.08. - 19.08. Belding, MI
23.08. - 29.08. St. Peters, MO
01.09. - 07.09. Middleton, TN
21.09. - 27.09. Mascouta, IL
30.09. - 06.10. Nevada, MO
08.11. - 14.11. Killeen, TX

1998 Fahrplan "B"

02/05 - 02/11 Ingleside, TX
14.02. - 20.02. Marble Falls, TX
03/10 - 03/16 Tampa, FL
19.03. - 25.03. Altamonte Springs, FL
04/08 - 04/14 Beaufort, SC
20.04. - 26.04. Melbourne, FL
05/03 - 05/09 Cumming, GA
14.05. - 20.05. Mt Pleasant, IA
23.05. - 29.05. Atwood, KS
10.06. - 16.06. Fort Collins, CO
19.06. - 25.06. Fort Scott, KS
29.06. - 05.07. Mineralbrunnen, TX
09.07. - 15.07. Rom, GA
18.07. - 24.07. Hillsville, Virginia
27.07. - 02.08. Matamoras, PA
08.04. - 08.10. Valley Stream, NY
08/12 - 08/18 Bristol, CT
20.08. - 26.08. Rotterdam, NY
28.08. - 03.09. Waverly, NY
05.09. - 11.09. Hazelton, PA
14.09. - 20.09. Meadville, PA
23.09. - 29.09. Albany, NY
10.04. - 10.10. Florenz, SC
30.10. - 05.11. Norwalk, CA
07.11. - 15.11. Buena Park, Kalifornien
22.11. - 28.11. Hawthorne, CA

1998 Fahrplan "C"

28.03. - 03.04. Denver, CO
19.04. - 25.04. Trenton, MI
10.05. - 16.05. Peru, IL
20.05. - 25.05. Harrison, NJ
31.05. - 06.06. Fort Benjamin Harrison, IN
08.06. - 14.06. Monroe, MI
17.06. - 23.06. Kokomo, IN
07.02. - 07.08. Battle Creek, MI
07/12 - 07/18 Neues Schloss, PA
21.07. - 27.07. Cheektowaga, NY
08.02. - 08.08. Cedar Rapids, IA
13.08. - 19.08. Toledo, Ohio
29.08. - 05.09. Dubuque, IA
11.09. - 21.09. Neillsville, Wisconsin
24.09. - 30.09. Waukesha, Wisconsin
15.10. - 18.10. Palm Springs, Kalifornien
23.10. - 29.10. Rancho Cucamonga, CA
11.11. - 15.11. Pittsburg, CA

1999 Zeitplan "A"

1999 Zeitplan "B"

09.03. - 15.03. Slidell, LA
24.03. - 30.03. Leesburg, FL
04.03. - 04.09. Ft Myers, FL
04/12 - 04/18 Melbourne, FL
21.04. - 27.04. Tampa, FL
30.04. - 06.05. Ft Lauderdale, FL
09.05. - 15.05. Fernandina Beach, FL
19.05. - 25.05. Grenada, MS
28.05. - 01.06. Dacula, GA
06.06. - 12.06. Ovid, NY
14.06. - 20.06. Carlisle, PA
24.06. - 29.06. Princeton, WV
07.02. - 07.08. Southport, NC
12.07. - 18.07. Fayetteville, NC
21.07. - 27.07. Tarent, PA
30.07. - 05.08. Lilly, PA
09.08. - 15.08. Atlantic City, NJ
18.08. - 24.08. Tannersville, PA
27.08. - 02.09. Christiana, PA
06.09. - 12.09. Skidmore, MO
15.09. - 21.09. Tonganoxie, KS
24.09. - 30.09. Detroit Lakes, MN
10.04. - 10.10. St. Joseph, MO
10/16 - 10/23 Ft Smith, AR
28.10. - 03.11. Jackson, TN
05.11. - 11.11. Branson, MO
19.11. - 25.11. Sebring, FL
29.11. - 04.12. Union Point, GA

1999 Zeitplan "C"

21.05. - 31.05. Honolulu, HI
18.06. - 20.06. Hugoton, KS
23.06. - 27.06. Manitowoc, WI
30.06. - 06.07. Sault Ste Marie, MI
10.07. - 16.07. Sherman Mills, ME
19.07. - 25.07. Burlington, MA
27.07. - 02.08. Holliston, MA
08.04. - 08.10. Dorchester, MA
08/12 - 08/18 Nord Attleboro, MA
21.08. - 27.08. Bolton Landing, NY
01.09. - 07.09. Elyria, Ohio
09.09. - 15.09. Mansfield, Ohio
18.09. - 23.09. Chicago, IL
27.09. - 03.10. Lamar, MO
10/10 10/17 Angel Fire, NM
24.10. - 30.10. Ontario, CA
11.02. - 11.08. Palmdale, CA
11.11. - 17.11. Whittier, CA
01.12. - 07.12. Las Vegas, NV

2000 Zeitplan "A"

2000 Fahrplan "B"

04.03.-04.09. Melbourne, Florida
04/12-04/18 Plant City, Florida
20.04.-26.04. Fort Lauderdale, Florida
29.04.-05.05. Barnwell, South Carolina
08.05.-21.05. Cleveland, Ohio
23.05.-29.05. Kirtland, Ohio
06/05-06/11 Lawrence, Indiana
23.06.-29.06. Butler, Pennsylvania
07.02.-07.06. Massillon, Ohio
07/08-07/14 Cincinnati, Ohio
17.07.-23.07. French Lick, Indiana
27.07.-31.07. Fort Snelling, Minnesota
08.03.-08.09. Elsberry, Missouri
08/12-08/18 Lawrenceville, Illinois
21.08.-27.08. Somerset, Kentucky
01.09.-09.04 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
09.07.-09.13 West Tawakoni, Texas
16.09.-22.09. Holdenville, Oklahoma
25.09.-10.01. Hays, Kansas
10.04.10.10 Loveland, Colorado
13.10.19 Hobbs, New Mexico
28.10.-11.02 West Covina, Kalifornien
11.04.-11.12 Lynwood, Kalifornien
19.11.11.25 Hawthorne, Kalifornien
28.11.-12.04 Ceres, Kalifornien

2000 Fahrplan "C"

05/04-05/10 Milwaukee, Wisconsin
14.05.-05.20 Heiße Quellen, Arkansas
29.05.-06.04 Rancho Palos Verdes, Kalifornien
06/12-06/18 Provo, Utah
22.06.-28.06. Boise, Idaho
07.02.-07.08. Watertown, South Dakota
13.07.-07.19 Helena, Montana
29.07.-08.05. Silverdale, Washington
08/08-08/14 Bellingham, Washington
17.08.-23.08. Nespelem, Washington
31.08.-09.04 South Range, Michigan
09.07.-09.13 Sturgis, Michigan
16.09.-22.09. Coldwater, Ohio
25.09.-10.01. Park Falls, Wisconsin
10/06-10/12 Weatherford, Oklahoma
20.10.10.26 Alameda, Kalifornien
29.10.-11.05. Ukiah, Kalifornien
11.10.11.16 San Francisco, Kalifornien

2001 Zeitplan "A"

23.03.-30.03. Tyndall AFB, Florida
04.03.-04.09. Plant City, Florida
23.04.-29.04. Melbourne, Florida
02.05.-05.08. Tallapoosa, Georgien
05/11-05/17 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
25.05.-31.05. Herrin, Illinois
06.02.-06.08 Kennet, Missouri
06/12-06/18 Greencastle, Indiana
23.06.-29.06. Clinton, Missouri
07.02.-07.08. Indianapolis, Indiana
12.07.-07.18 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
21.07.-27.07. Clarion, Pennsylvania
30.07.-08.05. Norwood, New York
08.08.-08.14 Fulton, New York
17.08.-23.08. Bronx, New York
25.08.-31.08. North Wildwood, New Jersey
09.02.-09.08 West Haven, Connecticut
09/10-09/16 Suffern, New York
22.09.-28.09. Joliet, Illinois
10.02.-10.08 DeSoto, Kansas
10/10-10/16 Linn Creek, Missouri
21.10.-10.27 Fulton, Mississippi
11.01.-11.07 Hattiesburg, Mississippi
11.08.-11.14 Gonzales, Louisiana

2001 Zeitplan "C"

01.05.-05.05. Ithaka, New York
08.05.-05.12 Sanborn, New York
17.05.-23.05.Chouteau, Oklahoma
26.05.-06.01. Bergheim, Arkansas
06.05.-06.09. Elko, Nevada
06/12-06/18 Travis AFB, Kalifornien
25.06.-07.01. Esmond, North Dakota
07.04.-07.10 Judith Gap, Montana
14.07.-07.20 Sandpoint, Idaho
24.07.-30.07. Raymond, Washington
08/06-08/12 Metlakatla, Alaska
16.08.-22.08. Fairbanks, Alaska
24.08.-27.08. Anchorage, Alaska
09.04.-09.10 Florenz, Oregon
14.09.-09.20 Towaoc, Colorado
24.09.-30.09. Grove, Oklahoma
10.04.-10.10 Wichita, Kansas
22.10.-10.27 Ellensburg, Washington
31.10.05 Santa Barbara, Kalifornien
11.08.-11.14 Laughlin, Nevada

2002 Zeitplan "A"

04/11-04/17 Plant City, Florida
22.04.-28.04. Norwood, North Carolina
05/04-05/10 Maysville, Kentucky
14.05.-05.20 Salina, Kansas
24.05.-30.05. Saginaw, Texas
06.02.-06.08. Dodge City, Kansas
06/11-06/17 Roswell, New Mexico
20.06.-26.06. Sierra Vista, Arizona
01.07.-07.07. Long Beach, Kalifornien
18.07.-24.07. Lancaster, Kalifornien
27.07.-08.02. Lodi, Kalifornien
13.08.-17.08. Taubenschmiede, Tennessee
20.08.-26.08. Eldon, Iowa
30.08.-09.05. Grand Forks, North Dakota
09.09.-09.15 Jamestown, North Dakota
19.09.-09.25 Fairbury, Nebraska
29.09.-10.05. Cheyenne, Wyoming
10.08.-10.14 Nampa, Idaho
17.10.-10.23. SeaTac, Washington
27.10.-11.02. Pahrump, Nevada
11.05.11.11 Reno, Nevada

2002 Zeitplan "C"

05/03-05/09 Rocky Ford, Colorado
13.05.-05.19 Idabel, Oklahoma
23.05.-29.05. Woodstock, Illinois
06.02.-06.08 Arcadia, Wisconsin
06/12-06/18 Kingsford, Michigan
22.06.-28.06. Mt Clemens, Michigan
01.07.-07.07 Indianapolis, Indiana
07/11-07/17 Easthampton, Massachusetts
20.07.-26.07. Sherman Station, Maine
29.07.-08.04 Whitinsville, Massachusetts
08.08.-08.14 Toronto, Ohio
19.08.-25.08. Rosebud, South Dakota
28.08.-09.03. Baraga, Michigan
09.09.-09.15 Salisbury, Maryland
18.09.-24.09. Beaver, Pennsylvania
28.09.-10.04 Oconomowoc, Wisconsin
10.07.-10.13 Kirksville, Missouri
17.10.-10.23 Marksville, Louisiana
27.10.-11.02. Natalia, Texas
05.11.11.11 San Angelo, Texas

2003 Zeitplan "A"

04/08-04/14 Pacifica, CA
17.04.-23.04. Atascadero, CA
26.04.-05.02. San Jacinto, CA
05.05.-05.11. Holbrook, Arizona
14.05.-05.20 Cimarron, NM
24.05.-30.05. Allen, TX
06/02-06/08 Pine Bluff, AR
06/12-06/18 Okmulgee, OK
22.06.-28.06. Gilpin County, CO
07.02.-07.06. Weaverville, CA
07/11-07/17 Kerrville, TX
21.07.-26.07. Troja, KS
30.07.-08.05. Florissant, MO
08/09-08/15 Meridian, MS
29.08.-09.04 Florenz, KY
09/07-09/13 Fairmont, WV
19.09.-25.09. Gardner, MA
29.09.-10.05 Ft. Lee, Virginia
10.08.-10.14 Neu Bern, NC
17.10.-10.23. Bamberg, SC
27.10.-11.02 Waycross, GA
11.05.11.11 Palmetto, FL

2003 Zeitplan "C"

05/05-05/11 Montgomery City, MO
20.05.-26.05. Anamosa, IA
30.05.-06.05. Salem, Ohio
18.06.-24.06. Mariaville, NY
30.06.-07.06. Wheaton, IL
07/10-07/16 Chadron, NE
21.07.-27.07. Süd St. Paul, MN
08/04-08/10 Belle Fourche, SD
13.08.-08.19 Yankton, SD
26.08.-09.01 Durango, CO
09.05.-09.11 Bullhead City, AZ
15.09.-21.09. Tucson, AZ
25.09.-10.01. Pomona, CA
10.05.-10.11 Lemoore, CA
15.10.-10.21 Los Banos, CA
25.10.-10.31 Bridgeport, WA
11.03.-11.09 West Richland, WA
19.11.11.25 Santa Clara, Kalifornien

2004 Zeitplan "A"

27.03. - 02.04. Große Feder, TX
05.04. - 11.04. Johnson City, TX
14.04. - 20.04. Natchitoches, LA
23.04. - 29.04. Wynne, AR
02.05. - 07.05. Oberlin, LA
05/11 - 05/16 Oakley, KS
20.05. - 26.05. Bellefontaine Nachbarn, MO
28.05. - 02.06. Quasqueton, IA
05.06. - 11.06. Iola, KS
16.06. - 22.06. Bergheim, ID
01.07. - 05.07. Hollister, CA
16.07. - 18.07. Stipendien, NM
23.07. - 29.07. Beallsville, Ohio
08/03 - 08/09 Weiße Wolke, MI
08/12 - 08/18 Loogootee, IN
08/22 - 08/28 Atlanta, GA
09/01 - 09/07 Spring Hill, FL
09/12 - 09/18 Raeford, NC
09/22 - 09/28 London, KY
10/01 - 10/07 Benton, KY
10/11 - 10/17 Supply, NC
10/20 - 10/26 Virginia Beach, VA
10/29 - 11/04 Point Pleasant, WV
11/08 - 11/14 Boca Raton, FL
11/19 - 11/25 LaPorte, TX

2004 Schedule "C"

04/10 - 04/16 Fowler, CA
04/19 - 04/25 Palm Springs, CA
04/29 - 05/05 Lakeside, AZ
05/08 - 05/14 Los Lunas, NM
05/18 - 05/24 Castle Rock, CO
05/27 - 06/02 Worland, WY
06/06 - 06/10 Ainsworth, NE
06/13 - 06/19 West Fargo, ND
06/22 - 06/28 Winger, MN
07/01 - 07/07 Agency Village, SD
07/11 - 07/17 West Branch, IA
07/20 - 07/26 Houston, MN
07/29 - 08/04 Shawano, WI
08/14 - 08/20 Caro, MI
08/23 - 08/29 Kalkaska, MI
09/03 - 09/09 Elysburg, PA
09/14 - 09/20 Seaford, DE
09/23 - 09/29 Lake Hopatcong , NJ
10/02 - 10/08 Queens, NY
10/11 - 10/17 Warren, RI

2005 Schedule "A"

03/22 - 03/28 Tulsa, OK
04/01 - 04/07 Lubbock, TX
04/11 - 04/17 Douglas, AZ
04/22 - 04/27 Ceres, CA
04/30 - 05/06 Santa Barbara, CA
05/10 - 05/16 Fresno, CA
05/20 - 05/25 Hawthorne, NV
05/28 - 06/02 Yuba City, CA
06/07 - 06/13 Richland, WA
06/19 - 06/25 Rifle, CO
06/30 - 07/06 Gregory, SD
07/11 - 07/17 Sault Ste Marie, MI
07/21 - 07/27 Oscoda, MI
08/01 - 08/07 Alpharetta, GA
08/11 - 08/17 Country Club Hills, IL
08/20 - 08/26 Michigan City, IN - Sponsor's web site
08/30 - 09/06 Somerset, KY
09/09 - 09/15 Murray, KY
09/22 - 09/28 Hope Mills, NC
10/03 - 10/09 West Plains, MO
10/12 - 10/18 Independence, KS
10/29 - 11/04 Azusa, CA
11/10 - 11/13 Las Vegas, NV
11/22 - 11/28 Jefferson City, MO
12/04 - 12/11 New Orleans, LA

2005 Schedule "C"

04/05 - 04/10 Selma, AL
04/13 - 04/19 Dahlonega, GA
04/23 - 04/30 Oxford, MS
05/04 - 05/08 Conyers, GA
05/13 - 05/18 Falfurrias, TX
05/21 - 05/22 Selfridge ANGB, MI
05/27 - 06/02 Woodstock, IL
06/14 - 06/19 Tupper Lake, NY
06/22 - 06/28 North Attleboro, MA
07/01 - 07/07 Everett, MA
07/10 - 07/16 Goffstown, NH
07/19 - 07/25 Amesbury, MA
07/26 - 07/31 Bennington, VT
08/02 - 08/08 Wilton, ME
08/11 - 08/16 Waltham, MA
08/19 - 08/24 Meredith, NH
09/10 - 09/16 Racine, WI
09/20 - 09/26 Knoxville, Iowa
09/30 - 10/06 Erie, IL
10/12 - 10/18 Jackson, TN
10/22 - 10/25 Lehigh Acres, FL
10/29 - 11/04 Tavares, FL
11/09 - 11/14 Centerville, OH

Schedule "A" 2006

Schedule "C" 2006

04/27 - 05/01 March AFB, CA
05/04 - 05/08 Yountville, CA
05/24 - 05/30 Fairbanks, AK
06/01 - 06/06 Wasilla, AK
06/08 - 06/13 Eagle River, AK
06/15 - 06/20 Kodiak, AK
06/24 - 06/29 Cordova, AK
07/01 - 07/06 Bethel, AK
07/09 - 07/15 Auke Bay, AK
07/27 - 07/31 Rupert, ID
08/17 - 08/21 Rome City, IN
08/24 - 08/28 New Lexington, OH
08/31 - 09/04 Boonville, IN
09/07 - 09/11 Alma, MI
09/28 - 10/02 Brookfield, WI
10/05 - 10/09 Fawn Grove, PA
10/12 - 10/16 Shelton, CT
10/19 - 10/23 Dublin, VA
10/25 - 10/29 Coinjock, NC
11/02 - 11/06 LaPlace, LA
11/09 - 11-13 Lehigh Acres. FL

Schedule "A" 2007

04/26 - 04/30 Columbiana, OH
05/03 - 05/07 Chester, PA
05/10 - 05/14 Schuykill County, PA
05/17 - 05/21 Union, NJ
05/24 - 05/28 Old Orchard Beach, ME
05/31 - 06/04 Lincoln, ME
06/07 - 06/11 Abington, MA
06/14 - 06/18 Hamden, CT
06/21 - 06/25 Clayton, NY
07/03 - 07/08 Harvey, ND
07/12 - 07/16 Missoula, MT
07/26 - 07/30 Pocatello, ID
08/02 - 08/06 Provo, UT
08/09 - 08/13 Craig, Colorado
08/16 - 08/20 Cripple Creek, CO
08/23 - 08/27 LaCrescent, MN
08/30 - 09/03 Verdigre, NE
09/06 - 09/10 Superior, NE
09/13 - 09/17 Lenexa, KS
09/20 - 09/24 Moberly, MO
09/27 - 10/01 Broken Arrow, OK
10/04 - 10/08 Versailles, MO
10/11 - 10/15 San Angelo, TX
10/18 - 10/22 Early, TX
10/25 - 10/29 Houston, TX
11/01 - 11/05 Slidell, LA
11/08 - 11/12 Minden, LA

Schedule "C" 2007

05/03 - 05/07 Deming, WA
05/17 - 05/21 Florence, OR
05/24 - 05/28 Red Bluff, CA
05/31 - 06/04 Redlands, CA
06/07 - 06/11 San Jacinto, CA
06/14 - 06/18 Bullhead City, AZ
06/21 - 06/25 Alma, NE
07/12 - 07/16 Fort Wayne, IN
07/19 - 07/23 Bloomdale, OH
07/26 - 07/30 Bellefontaine, OH
08/02 - 08/06 White Cloud, MI
08/09 - 08/13 Eaton Rapids, MI
08/16 - 08/19 Lapeer, MI
08/23 - 08/27 Covington, KY
08/30 - 09/03 South Range, MI
09/06 - 09/10 St Cloud, MN
09/13 - 09/17 Cherokee, IA
09/20 - 09/24 River Falls, WI
09/27 - 10/01 Warrens, WI
10/04 - 10/08 Joliet, IL
10/11 - 10/15 California, PA
10/18 - 10/22 Winchester, TN
10/25 - 10/29 Indian Trail, NC - Web Site
11/01 - 11/05 Myrtle Beach, SC

Schedule "A" 2008

04/17 - 04/21 Locust Grove, OK
04/24 - 04/28 Bloomfield, NM
05/01 - 05/05 Fontana, CA
05/08 - 05/12 Covina, CA
05/15 - 05/19 Temple City, CA
05/22 - 05/26 Rancho Palos Verdes, CA
05/29 - 06/02 Stockton, CA
06/05 - 06/09 Keensburg, CO
06/12 - 06/16 Hoxie, KS
06/19 - 06/23 Elkhorn, NE
06/26 - 06/30 Tishomingo, OK
07/03 - 07/07 DeRidder, LA
07/10 - 07/14 Guntersville, AL
07/17 - 07/21 Lawrence, IN
07/24 - 07/28 Algonac, MI
07/31 - 08/04 Marysville, MI
08/14 - 08/18 Alsip, IL
08/21 - 08/25 Sparta, MI
08/28 - 09/01 Hecker, IL
09/04 - 09/08 Liberty, IN
09/10 - 09/15 Brighton, MI
09/18 - 09/22 Wilmington, MA
09/25 - 09/29 St Regis Falls, NY
10/02 - 10/06 Kings Mountain, NC
10/09 - 10/13 Whiteville, NC
10/16 - 10/20 North Charleston, SC
10/23 - 10/27 Tifton, GA
10/30 - 11/03 Davenport, FL
11/06 - 11/11 Miami, FL

Schedule "C" 2008

05/01 - 05/05 Edinboro, PA
05/08 - 05/12 Wellsville, NY
05/15 - 05/19 St Albans, VT
05/22 - 05/26 Center Ossipee, NH
05/29 - 06/02 Middleboro, MA
06/05 - 06/09 Somers Point, NJ
06/12 - 06/16 Richmond Hill, GA
07/03 - 07/07 Bessemer, MI
07/10 - 07/14 Sandstone, MN
07/17 - 07/21 Ely, MN
07/24 - 07/28 Manistique, MI
08/07 - 08/11 Kalkaska, MI
08/14 - 08/18 Blairsville, PA
08/28 - 09/01 Sevierville, TN
09/04 - 09/08 Chicago, IL
09/11 - 09/15 Beaver, PA
09/18 - 09/22 Harrisburg, PA
09/25 - 09/29 Miamisburg, OH
10/09 - 10/13 Princeton, WI
10/16 - 10/20 Delafield, WI
10/23 - 10/27 Little Falls, MN
10/30 - 11/03 Shelbyville, TN
11/06 - 11/11 Panama City, FL

Schedule "A" 2009

04/30 - 05/04 Elyria, Ohio 05/07 - 05/11 Evart, Michigan05/14 - 05/18 Coldwater, Michigan 05/21 - 05/25 Allentown, Pennsylvania 05/28 - 06/01 Newmarket, New Hampshire 06/03 - 06/08 Plymouth, Massachusetts 06/11 - 06/15 West Newton, Pennsylvania 06/25 - 06/29 Munnsville, New York 07/02 - 07/06 Ellwood City, Pennsylvania 07/09 - 07/13 Platteville, Wisconsin 07/16 - 07/20 White Pine, Michigan 07/23 - 07/27 Tilden, Nebraska 07/30 - 08/03 West Branch, Iowa 08/06 - 08/10 Freeburg, Illinois 08/20 - 08/24 Shawnee, Oklahoma 08/27 - 08/31 Weatherford, Oklahoma 09/03 - 09/07 Garnett, Kansas 09/10 - 09/14 Warrenton, Missouri 09/17 - 09/21 Allerton, Iowa 09/24 - 09/28 Milwaukee, Wisconsin 10/01 - 10/05 Downers Grove, Illinois 10/08 - 10/12 Charlestown, Indiana 10/15 - 10/19 Dillsboro, NC 10/22 - 10/26 Gonzales, Louisiana 10/29 - 11/02 Manchester, Tennessee 11/05 - 11/09 Westchester, Illinois

Schedule "C" 2009

05/07 - 05/11 Pilot Point, Texas
05/14 - 05/18 Montrose, Colorado
05/21 - 05/25 Ogden, Utah
05/28 - 06/01 Cathedral City, California
06/11 - 06/15 Lakeport, California
07/02 - 07/06 Marinette, Wisconsin
08/01 - 08/08 Sturgis, South Dakota
08/20 - 08/24 St Ignace, Michigan
08/27 - 08/31 Ashtabula, Ohio
09/03 - 09/07 East Liverpool, Ohio
09/10 - 09/14 Brocton, New York
09/17 - 09/21 Boston, Massachusetts
09/24 - 09/28 Wolfeboro, New Hampshire
10/01 - 10/05 Rocky Mount, Virginia
10/08 - 10/12 Murphy, North Carolina
10/29 - 11/02 Barnwell, SC
11/05 - 11/09 Owensboro, Kentucky

Schedule "A" 2010

05/13 - 05/17 Cheboygan, Michigan
05/20 - 05/24 Carrollton, Kentucky
05/27 - 05/31 Westerville, Ohio
06/03 - 06/07 Springfield, Ohio
06/10 - 06/14 Lynbrook, New York
06/17 - 06/21 West Hartford, Connecticut
06/24 - 06/28 Batavia, New York
07/01 - 07/05 Andover, New York
07/08 - 07/12 Hamburg, Michigan
07/22 - 07/26 Crosby, Minnesota
07/29 - 08/02 Seneca, Kansas
08/05 - 08/09 Anadarko, Oklahoma
08/13 - 08/16 Chowchilla, California
08/19 - 08/23 Norwalk, California
08/26 - 08/30 Ventura, California
09/02 - 09/06 Sacramento, California
09/09 - 09/13 Spanish Fork, Utah
09/16 - 09/20 Watertoen, South Dakota
09/23 - 09/28 LaCrosse, Wisconsin
10/14 - 10/18 Florence, Kentucky
10/28 - 11/01 Pooler, Georgia
11/04 - 11/08 DuQuoin, Illinois

Schedule "C" 2010

05/20 - 05/24 Green Bay, Wisconsin
06/10 - 06/14 Greeley Hill, California
06/17 - 06/21 Reno, Nevada
06/24 - 06/28 Brookings, Oregon
07/01 - 07/05 Fontana, California
07/15 - 07/19 Grand Ronde, Oregon
08/03 - 08/07 Harrison, Michigan
08/26 - 08/30 Almena, Wisconsin
09/02 - 09/06 Mount Vernon, Indiana
09/09 - 09/13 Sikeston, Missouri
09/16 - 09/20 Lamoni, Iowa
09/23 - 09/27 Norton, Kansas
09/30 - 10/04 Clinton, Iowa
10/07 - 10/10 London, Kentucky
10/14 - 10/18 Harbinger, North Carolina

Schedule "A" 2011

04/14 - 04/18 Arlington, MA
04/21 - 04/25 Barboursvilla, WV
04/28 - 05/02 Kathleen, GA
05/05 - 05/09 Carrollton, GA
05/19 - 05/23 Camden, TN
05/26 - 05/30 New Lenox, IL
06/02 - 06/06 Ogdensburg, NY
06/09 - 06/13 Natick, MA
06/16 - 06/20 Chicago, IL
06/23 - 06/27 Maquoketa, IA
06/30 - 07/04 Armour, SD
07/07 - 07/11 Albion, NE
07/21 - 07/25 Westland, MI
07/28 - 08/01 Spooner, WI
08/04 - 08/08 Rugby, ND
08/11 - 08/15 Lewiston, ID
08/25 - 08/29 Rosebud, SD
09/01 - 09/05 Granite City, IL
09/10 - 09/18 Tulsa, OK
09/29 - 10/03 Santa Barbara, CA
10/06 - 10/10 Garden Grove, CA
10/13 - 10/17 Desert Hot Springs, CA
10/20 - 10/24 Kingman, AZ
11/06 - 11/14 Fayetteville, NC

Schedule "A" 2012

05/17 - 05/21 Lawrence, Indiana
05/24 - 05/29 Hot Springs, Arkansas
05/31 - 06/04 Clifton, Tennessee
06/07 - 06/11 Rocky Mount, Virginia
06/14 - 06/18 Indian Trail, North Carolina
06/21 - 06/25 Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania
06/28 - 07/02 Middle Village, New York
07/05 - 07/09 Fairhaven, Massachusetts
07/12 - 07/16 Springfield, Vermont
07/19 - 07/23 Hogansburg, New York
07/26 - 07/30 Solon, Ohio
08/02 - 08/06 Hermitage, Pennsylvania
08/09 - 08/13 Elmore, Ohio
08/16 - 08/20 Birch Run, Michigan
08/23 - 08/27 Sault Ste Marie, Michigan
09/13 - 09/17 Eau Claire, Wisconsin
09/20 - 09/24 Audubon, Minnesota
09/27 - 10/01 Sparta, Illinois
10/04 - 10/08 Farmington, Missouri
10/11 - 10/15 Dubuque, Iowa
10/18 - 10/22 Valley Center, Kansas
10/25 - 10/29 Henderson, Texas
11/01 - 11/05 Jackson, Alabama

Schedule "B" 2012

05/07 - 05/13 Ketchikan, Alaska
05/15 - 05/22 Juneau, Alaska
05/24 - 05/29 Haines, Alaska
06/01 - 06/06 Fairbanks, Alaska
06/08 - 06/13 Wasilla, Alaska
06/15 - 06/21 Ninilchik, Alaska
7/19 - 07/23 Union, Oregon

Schedule "A" 2013

05/23 - 05/27 New Haven, New York
05/30 - 06/03 Medway, Massachusetts
06/06 - 06/10 Malden, Massachusetts
06/13 - 06/17 Willmington, Vermont
06/20 - 06/24 Staceyville, Maine
06/27 - 07/01 Hatfield, Pennsylvania
07/04 - 07/08 Hastings-On-Hudson, New York
07/11 - 07/15 Follansbee, West Virginia
08/01 - 08/05 Middlesborough, Kentucky
08/08 - 08/12 Spencer, Indiana
08/15 - 08/19 Ironton, Ohio

08/22 - 08/26 Three Oaks, Michigan
08/29 - 09/02 Sparta, Michigan
09/12 - 09/16 Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin
09/19 - 09/23 Washington, Missouri
09/26 - 09/30 Adel, Georgia
10/03 - 10/07 Jackson, Alabama
10/10 - 10/14 Cleveland, Texas
10/17 - 10/21 Rio Rancho, New Mexico
10/31 - 11/04 Camden, Tennessee
11/07 - 11/11 Aurora, Illinois


HAARP

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HAARP, vollständig High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program, scientific facility for studying the ionosphere, located near Gakona, Alaska. The main instrument is the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI), an array of 180 radio antennas spread over an area of 0.13 square kilometer (33 acres).

The ionosphere is the outermost layer of Earth’s atmosphere. It begins at about 50 kilometers (30 miles) above Earth’s surface and contains atoms and molecules that are ionized (that is, they lose an electron and become positively charged) by the Sun’s ultraviolet light. The ionosphere is of particular importance for radio because low radio frequencies are reflected off the ionosphere, allowing for long-distance communications. At higher frequencies, radio communications with satellites pass through the ionosphere. The ionosphere is also where the auroras occur when solar wind particles collide with oxygen and nitrogen atoms.

The IRI transmits at frequencies between 2.7 and 10 MHz with a power of 3.6 megawatts. It transmits radio waves upward into the ionosphere, where they cause electrons to move in waves. HAARP is an ionospheric heater, so called because the excitation of electrons increases their temperature, and it is the most powerful ionospheric heater in the world. By altering the density of electrons in a specific region, scientists using HAARP can study how the ionosphere reacts to changing conditions.

Because of the ionosphere’s significance for radio communications, in the early 1990s the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy proposed the HAARP project, and the Air Force began construction in 1993. The site near Gakona was chosen because it was an area of flat ground that was in the North Polar region where auroras occur. The HAARP site was near a major highway but isolated enough that there were no nearby sources of electrical or radio interference. Responsibility for HAARP was transferred to the University of Alaska Fairbanks in 2015.

HAARP became a popular subject of conspiracy theories. Venezuelan Pres. Hugo Chávez blamed it for the 2010 Haiti earthquake, but most such theories about HAARP concern its use for weather modification or mind control. In response, HAARP scientists noted that the ionosphere is far above the troposphere and stratosphere where Earth’s weather actually happens, and, as for any other effects, HAARP scientists stated that the amount of energy the IRI deposits in the ionosphere is far below that supplied naturally by the Sun and that any effects from the IRI quickly dissipate.


History of San Buenaventura Mission

San Buenaventura Mission is the ninth Franciscan mission founded in California, and the last by Father Jun í pero Serra. The site was chosen within the limits of the present Ventura, Ventura County, near the beach and adjoining one of the native villages, and the usual founding ceremonies took place Mar. 31, 1782. The natives seemed pleased with the prospect and readily aided in the construction of the new buildings. The increase in the number of neophytes was not so rapid as at some of the missions. In 1790 there were 385 in 1800, 715 in 1810, 1,297 while the highest number, 1,328, was reached in 1816. In other respects the mission was very successful it had more cattle (10,013 head) and raised more grain (9,400 bushels) in 1800 than any other place in California. Vancouver visited the mission in Nov. 1793, and remarked on the quantity, variety, and general excellence of its vegetables and fruits. The buildings also were excellent, though the new stone church was not completed and dedicated until 1809. During the first decade of the 19th century the mission continued the most prosperous in California. In 1810 there were 21,221 cattle, 3,276 horses and mules, and 8,543 small stock, with an average crop for the decade of 6,400 bushels. Though losing some what by 1820, the mission still retained first place. The earthquake of 1812, which destroyed the church at San Juan Capistrano, also severely injured the new church of San Buenaventura, and it was feared that the whole mission site was settling into the sea, so that all the inhabitants removed to higher ground for three months. After 1820 the mission declined rapidly, both in converts and in material prosperity.

In 1830 there were 726 neophytes, and 626 in 1834. Up to that time the total number of natives baptized was 3,805, of whom 1,909 were children, Secularization does not seem to have been carried out here until 1837. Bancroft estimates that in 1840 there were about 250 Indians in the community and as many more scattered in the district. In 1844 the mission was reported as still fairly prosperous in 1846 the lands were sold for $12,000. The buildings remained in the possession of the Catholic Church, and since 1843 the mission has been the regular parish church of Ventura, which in garbled form was named from the mission. In 1893 the old church was so renovated as to lose much of its historic interest.

The Indians among whom San Buenaventura mission was established belonged to the Chumashan linguistic family, which probably furnished the major portion of the neophytes.


Rugged outposts in a rugged land

Thousands of gold miners, trappers, and other fortune seekers streamed into the U.S. Territory of Alaska in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. To serve them, roadhouses started popping up along the road, trail, and river systems they used. The structures ranged from large tents (sometimes fashioned from muskrat pelts) to massive timber lodges. They were usually spaced every 10 to 12 miles—thought to be the distance a human could dogsled or walk with all their belongings in a day.

Because these were often the sole businesses in the areas where they were built, roadhouses served multiple purposes, renting out bedrooms or bunks, doling out hot meals (caribou stew, sourdough pancakes) and cold whisky. They also functioned as community centers, post offices, saloons, and trading posts for both settlers and Indigenous people. It all depended on the size of the building and the attitude of the owner. Many had stables or kennels for horses or teams of dogs.

“They were gathering places for all kinds of people,” says Helen Hegener, an amateur historian who wrote Alaskan Roadhouses. “They met the needs of those traveling in these harsh regions.”

Roadhouses weren’t grand. The sleeping quarters were usually just big bunk rooms with straw-filled beds separated by curtains, often heated by oil-drum stoves. Travelers would gather in larger communal areas for dining family-style, story swapping, and playing live music.

Still, they were important reprieves from the elements on Alaska’s migratory highways, many of which crossed Indigenous lands. Depending on the weather and where travelers were headed, it could take over a month to hike into the interior from cities like Valdez and Skagway, making roadhouses vital to adventurers and locals, particularly when winter storms hit.

“The people who owned the roadhouses and those traveling between them really leaned on each other,” Hopper says. In 1917, the Donnelly Roadhouse (about 10 miles north of Black Rapids) took in a family stranded in 30 below zero temperatures. The couples’ infant daughter, believed lost in the snow and ice, was found alive a few hours later by two trappers who brought her back unharmed.

Alaska Nellie was a frontierswoman who operated the Grandview roadhouse in the south central part of the territory. She once dogsledded through a blizzard to rescue a stranded, frostbitten mailman before delivering his packages to a waiting train.

“It’s incredible,” says Hopper. “So many of the stories from that era are about surviving.”


LISTEN: Anchorage’s hot air balloon history rises again in ‘Curious Alaska’ column

Sometimes Alaskans have questions they don’t know what to do with.

Enter Curious Alaska, a series by the Anchorage Daily News that solicits reader questions about pretty much anything and sets reporters on them.

The ADN’s Michelle Theriault Boots and Morgan Krakow have been writing the column. Theriault Boots described Curious Alaska and, in one story, how she got to the bottom of why Anchorage doesn’t see as many hot air balloons as it used to.

Casey Grove: I just have two questions. What, and why?

Michelle Theriault-Boots: Good questions. You know, a lot of our reporting obviously is generated from — what do our readers want to know? But this is this kind of a very direct way: There’s this part of our site where you can go on and ask a question. And it’s defined very, very broadly. What are you curious about about Alaska? And we will use our professional reporting muscle to try to answer those questions.

So we got an overwhelming response. We got just incredible questions, and lots of them. They range from questions about the natural history of Alaska to what’s going on with the Fourth Avenue theater to what happened to all the hot air balloons that used to dot the skies of Anchorage. This is a perfect assignment for me because I love going down rabbit holes of all kinds, and this allows me to professionally go down those rabbit holes.

CG: Well, let’s go down that one in particular. What is the deal with hot air balloons? When were they a big deal in Anchorage, and what happened to them?

MTB: So if you lived here in the late 1970s, you’d probably remember around 1976 or ‘77 — sort of pipeline era — hot air ballooning became a thing. And on still summer evenings, it wasn’t uncommon to see half a dozen hot air balloons floating across the sky, in what was then a much less developed city. And in the early ‘80s, it became a pretty big deal. There was a Fur Rendezvous Hot Air Balloon Race —

CG: Wait, in the winter?

MTB: Yes, yes, in the winter. Anchorage winter weather, when it’s still, is actually, apparently, really great for hot air ballooning. And then it kind of, you know, it hit a peak of popularity and then by the mid to late 1980s, almost overnight, it just kind of went away.

CG: So I think when I first saw the tweet about this, it went something like ‘What happened to hot air ballooning in Anchorage? Was it the cocaine?’ Something like that. So I have to ask — was it the cocaine?

MTB: Yeah, that was sort of part of my lead for the story, you know, insurance and cocaine ruined everything. What I was told was that in the early ‘80s there was there was some partying that went on, maybe not strictly by the regs flying, some bad behavior and that for a time, the public’s opinion of hot air balloonists kind of soured a bit. And cocaine was specifically mentioned as a substance of choice in that era.

It was part of this sort of unregulated lifestyle in Anchorage, where you could do something like, you know, light up your hot air balloon on an empty field off of Lake Otis, float around, maybe touch down in the Brown Jug parking lot, get your free bottle of champagne — which was apparently a thing — and float on without a whole lot of red tape, or interference from any sort of government entity.

But as time went on, that sort of changed. And then there was a point at which insurers stopped selling insurance to hot air balloon operators, or made it prohibitively expensive. And it wasn’t necessarily because of any big disaster — there was no big crash, there was no big incident. It was just something that happened that kind of made it unfeasible, and too expensive, for most people to fly their hot air balloons. And, you know, simultaneously, at the same time, the city — a lot of the open spaces that really lent themselves to that filled in with development, making it much harder to just put your hot air balloon down anywhere.

CG: Well, we should probably ask a lawyer what the statute of limitations on hot air balloon crimes is.

MTB: Right, is that . . . a federal crime?

CG: Could be! So, I was looking at the explainer on ADN.com about what Curious Alaska is, and some of the questions that are mentioned there are like, what’s the deal with the Parks Highway igloo? What is Sarah Palin up to? Why are snow machines called snow machines or snow gos depending on where you’re at? Do you have answers to those questions, or are those in the works?

MTB: Those are questions we’ve gotten multiple times before, but we haven’t specifically tackled any of those yet. I can give you a preview — my Curious Alaska that’s coming out this week is about what’s up with those islands in the Aleutians and the Kodiak Archipelago where there’s cattle on them.

What’s up with those remote islands? And I’m not going to tell you the answer, you’re going to have to read it.

CG: So the cattle . . . There’s a lot of grass there but there’s also volcanoes right?

MTB: You’re just gonna have to read it. You’re just gonna have to read the column.


Gold Mining in Alaska

Only about 30,000 weary stampeders finally arrived in Dawson City. Most were gravely disappointed to learn reports of available Klondike gold were greatly exaggerated. For many, thoughts of gold and wealth had sustained them during their grueling journey. Learning they𠆝 come so far for nothing was too much to bear and they immediately booked passage home.

Miners who came to the Yukon in the winter had to wait months for the ground to thaw. They set up makeshift camps in Dawson and endured the harsh winter as best they could. With so many bodies crammed into a small area and sanitary facilities lacking, sickness, disease and death from infectious illness were commonplace.

Other people stayed in Dawson and attempted to mine gold—they usually came up empty-handed. But instead of returning home, they took advantage of Dawson’s booming infrastructure and worked in or opened saloons, supply stores, banks, brothels and restaurants. Most of the town’s merchants made their fortunes off the never-ending supply of miners arriving consumed with gold fever.


Take a lesson from Alaska’s pandemic history. Take the vaccine.

/>Anthony Green holds his son, Theo, 4, on his lap before receiving his first dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine at The Alaska Club West in Anchorage on Tuesday, April 6, 2021. "Are you gonna be my hero, my coach?" Green asked his son before sitting down to receive his shot. (Emily Mesner / ADN)

Anthony Green holds his son, Theo, 4, on his lap before receiving his first dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine at The Alaska Club West in Anchorage on Tuesday, April 6, 2021. "Are you gonna be my hero, my coach?" Green asked his son before sitting down to receive his shot. (Emily Mesner / ADN)

A highly contagious germ had existed since the beginning of recorded history. In mummified pharoahs’ bones, evidence of tuberculosis was found. It lived in droplets of breath. After a patient passed, the germ could live 24 hours in the corpse.

You didn’t need to do anything special to acquire it.

Then there came the Poliomyelitis virus. It existed somewhat passively until it spread widely in the first half of the 20th century and became a frightful, paralyzing killer in the 1950s, especially among children. Before knowing how it spread, people would even avoid filling their tires at a gas station in highly infected areas. They feared they would bring polio home with them in their tires. Swimming pools, ponds, movie theaters and schools were closed. Strict isolation became a way of life. It turned out it was in feces.

You didn’t need to do anything special to acquire it.

The COVID-19 virus now exists and is spread in droplets of our breath. You don’t have to do anything special to acquire it. Klingt bekannt?

Tuberculosis has been eradicated because of antibiotics and hygiene education.

Polio has been eradicated because of vaccines.

In these times of COVID-19, I’m hopeful history will repeat itself with eradication of the virus. COVID-19 now has multiple vaccines. Yours for the taking!

I grew up on the grounds of a tuberculosis sanatorium in Seward. Tuberculosis was an epidemic in the late 1940s and 1950s. The only cure then was surgically opening the chest and removing part or all of a diseased lung. That’s what my dad did. He was a chest surgeon. All staff at the sanatorium wore masks. As children of staff, we were not allowed to enter the wards of the hospital. The merchants discouraged sanatorium staff and their families from shopping in town. We could be carriers of TB. The Sears catalog became our best friend, and a general store was opened on the hospital grounds. My friends and schoolmates were mostly Alaska Native children from the Jesse Lee Home orphanage whose parents were in “The San” with TB, or had died from TB or influenza. We were all stigmatized and a little traumatized.

By 1952, 20% of Seward people were infected with polio. The sanatorium converted part of its facility into a rehabilitation center for polio victims. The day that the Salk vaccine came, all of us kids were supposed to line up for it. To a kid, the syringes were those gigantic stainless-steel pokers that they ran through a blow torch to sterilize after each vaccination. My dad had to find me cowering under my bed to get me to line up for that shot. There was no choice.

Did we do anything special? Looking back, I see that my parents and the rest of the medical people in Seward were pioneer warriors, making sacrifices to rid humanity of the scourge of germs and viruses. They didn’t think they were doing anything special. They just did it. All the while, hoping that maybe tomorrow, maybe tomorrow, a cure would be found.

Anyone hesitant to get vaccinated against COVID-19, take one for Team Alaska. In some cases, take two! It can’t hurt. It can only help. If we cry because it hurts, or wounds our pride, know that too many tears have fallen in lonely hospital beds at the loss of life. Too many grandchildren have been born and only seen on Zoom by grandparents. Too many businesses are failing. Too many schools closed.

Let life as we like it begin again. This would be especially kind of you.

Susan Phillips Cushing is a lifelong Alaskan, artist, poet/writer, social services advocate, wellness coordinator, behavioral health aide and Head Start child development coordinator who has served on many boards of directors. Three governors appointed and reappointed her to the State Council on Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault, where she served for seven years. She lives in Homer.


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